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Part III.

CHEMICAL REACTION and BIOTECHNOLOGY

Lesson 7 Unit Operations involving Chemical Reaction
Alberto Coz
Department of Chemistry and Process & Resource Engineering University of Cantabria coza@unican.es

Membrane Reactors Examples 2 .Reactive Absorption/Adsorption 4.INDEX 1.Basic principles 2.Reactive Distillation 3...Reactive Extraction 5....

An increase in research and innovation.1..eq 3 .Kinetics CA liquid interface CR Ceq Cs.Mass balances .Thermodynamic concepts .Chemical equilibrium .Basic principles They comprise the unit operation of mass transfer with simultaneous chemical reactions within a single apparatus. .

oligomerisation. Hydrolysis. Polymers: dimerisation. TAME. Hydrogenation. hydrocracking. 4 . Esterification: Methyl Acetate and other esters.. ETBE.2.Reactive Distillation Rectifying section Stripping section Industrial applications: Etherification: MTBE.

Absorption of nitrous gases.Food processing: Stripping various components producing odours. Desorption and recovery of ammonia.Cellulose industry: Sulphur dioxide absorption. HCl and ammonia absorption.Petrochemical industry: Synthesis gas processing. Effluent neutralization.Gas industry: Gas dehydration. .. Processing fatty acids.3. Ethylene oxide absorption.Refineries: Hydrocarbon absorbers for lean oil etc. .Reactive Absorption Industrial applications: . .Chemical industry: Synthesis gas processing (CO2 removal). Removal of CO2 and H2S. . 5 .The metal and packaging industries: Absorption of triethylamine (in foundries). . .. Flue gas desulfurisation. H2S absorbers.Wastewater/sewage treatment and pollution control: removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Chlorine dioxide absorption. Absorption and recovery of solvent vapours. .

3..Reactive Absorption Traditional – Novel methods: 6 .

Reactive Absorption Modelling: Usually dominated by the mass transport kinetics 7 ..3.

New bonds: from Van der Waals interactions to covalent bonds Modelling: . 8 .3.Reactive Adsorption Chemisorption: Reaction between the surface and the adsorbate. ..Mass transfer: adsorption. equilibrium.Reaction terms: kinetics.

NOx 9 .Desulfurisation. .Environmental applications: phenolic compounds.3.Dyes: wastewater in textile industry. .Pharmaceutical: penicillin or antibiotics in reactive adsorbents.. heavy metals. .Reactive Adsorption Applications: LIQUIDS: .Ammonia. GASES: .

especiation: geochemical equilibrium).Extraction coefficients. 10 .Hydrometallurgy: mining metals.. .Extraction of carboxylic acids. . the extractant in the organic phase reacts with the material in the aqueous phase and the reaction complexes formed are then solubilised in the organic phase. Modelling: .4.Leaching with chemical reactions (phases. . . .Pharmaceutical products. Usually.Reactive Extraction Reactive extraction is a separation process using the reactions between extractants and the materials extracted. Applications: .Furfural and others in biorefinery applications (Lesson 8).Kinetics and equilibrium.

Increase the conversion and selectivity.. Two types: Extractor type (conversion enhancement) Distributor/contactor type (selectivity enhancement) Dehydrogenation Esterification Steam reforming Water splitting Hydrocarbon oxidation Partial hydrogenation Methane to synthesis gas 11 ..5.Membrane Reactors A membrane reactor is a bifunctional apparatus combining a membranebased separation with a (catalytic) chemical reaction in one device. 1.

Membrane Reactors 2..5.Separation of products. 12 ..