D
Professor
Mechanical Engineering
Northern Illinois University
UEET 603
Introduction to Energy Engineering
Spring 2010
1/9/2014
Solar Energy
Pradip Majumdar
Department of Mechanical
Engineering
1/9/2014
Solar Radiation
Solar Components
Applications
Flat Plate
Collector
Photovoltaic
Cell
Solar Thermal
Power
Generation
Extraterrestrial
Solar Radiation
Solar Radiation
at Earth Surface
Optical
Properties for
Materials for
Solar Radiation
Direct, Diffuse,
Reflected
Radiation
Focusing
Collector
Solar
Heating and
Cooling
Direct Electric
Power
Generation
Geographical
Location and
Weather
Conditions
ELEMENTS OF SOLAR
ENERGY MODULE
Energy
Storage
Solar
Energy
Principles
1/9/2014
Topics
Solar energy and Application
Major Characteristics of Sun and Earth
Solar Radiation
Solar and wall angles
Estimation solar irradiation of a surface
Optical properties of surface
Solar collectors
Solar thermal systems
Solar Energy and Applications
Solar radiation is potential energy source
for power generation through use of solar
collector and photovoltaic cells.
Solar energy can be used as thermal
energy source for solar heating,
Airconditioning and cooling systems.
Solar radiation has important effects on
both the heat gain and heat loss of a
building.
Solar Radiation
Intensity of solar radiation incident on a surface is
important in the design of solar collectors, photovoltaic
cells, solar heating and cooling systems, and thermal
management of building.
This effect depends on both the location of the sun in the
sky and the clearness of the atmosphere as well as on
the nature and orientation of the building.
We need to know
 Characteristics of suns energy outside the earths
atmosphere, its intensity and its spectral distribution
 Variation with suns location in the sky during the day
and with seasons for various locations on the earth's
surface.
Solar Radiation
The suns structure and characteristics
determine the nature of the energy it radiates
into space.
Energy is released due to continuous fusion
reaction with interior at a temperature of the
order of million degrees.
Radiation is based on suns outer surface
temperature of 5777 K.
Solar Geometry
I
II
III
Photosphere
Chromosphere
Corona
Solar Geometry
The Sun: Major Characteristics
 A sphere of hot gaseous matter
 Diameter, D = (865400 miles) (Sharp circular boundary)
 Rotates about its axes (not as a rigid body)
 Takes 27 earth days at its equator and 30 days at polar
regions.
 The sun has an effective black body temperature of 5777 K
i.e. It is the temperature of a blackbody radiating the same
amount of energy as does the sun.
Mean earthsun distance: D = (865400 miles) (Sharp
circular boundary)
The Structure of Sun
Central Region: (Region I)
Energy is generated due to fusion
Reaction of gases transforms
hydrogen into helium.
 90% of energy is generated within
the core range of 0 0.23 R
 The temperature in the central
region is in million degrees.
 The temperature drops to 130,000 K
with in a range of 0.7R
Convection Region ( Region III)
 0.7R to R where convection process
involves
 The temperature drops to 5,000 K
Photosphere:
Upper layer of the convective zone
 Composed of strongly ionized gas
 Essentially opaque
 Able to absorb and emit continuous
spectrum of radiation
 Source of the most solar radiation
Chromosphere (10,000km)
Further outer gaseous layer with
temperature somewhat higher tan the
Photosphere.
Corona
Still further outer layer
 extremity of sun.
 Consists of Rarified gases.
 Temperature as high as 1000,000 K
Thermal Radiation
Thermal radiation is the intermediate portion (0.1
~ 100m) of the electromagnetic radiation
emitted by a substance as a result of its
temperature.
Thermal radiation heat transfer involves
transmission and exchange of electromagnetic
waves or photon particles as a result of
temperature difference.
Plancks Spectral Distribution of
Black Body Emissive Power
The thermal radiation emitted by a black
substance covers a range of wavelength
(), referred as spectral distribution and
given as
( )
  1 e
C
E
T /
2
C 5
1
b ,
2 4 8 2
0 1
m / m . W 10 3.742 2h C = =
K . m 10 1.439 k / hc C
4
0
2
= =
s . J 10 626 . 6 t tan cons s ' Planck h
24
= =
K / J 10 381 . 1 t tan cons Boltzmann k
23
= =
Solar Intensity Distribution
Spectral distribution show the variation of
solar radiation over the a bandwidth
m 3.0 to 0.25
Black Body Emissive Power
The total black body emissive power is
obtained by integrating the spectral emissive
power over the entire range of wavelengths
and derived as
4
T E
b
o =
Where o = StefanBoltzman constant
=
4 2 8
. / 10 6697 . 5 K m W
( )
 
d
1 e
C
E E
0
T /
2
C 5
1
b , b }
= =
Real Body Emissive Power
b
E E =
factor Emissivity
E
E
b
= = c
c
b
E E =
Spectral Emissive Power
emissivity cal hemispheri Spectral
E
E
b
= =
c
Total Emissive Power
4
T E co =
Extraterrestrial Radiation
Solar radiation that would be received in the
absence of earth atmosphere.
Extraterrestrial solar radiation exhibit a spectral distribution
over a
ranger of wavelength: 0.1 2.5
 Includes ultraviolet, visible and infrared
m
Solar Constant
Solar Constant = Solar radiation intensity upon a
surface normal to sun ray and at outer
atmosphere (when the earth is at its mean
distance from the sun).
hr
m W G
SC
2
2
Btu/ft 433
/ 1367
=
=
sc
G
Variation of Extraterrestrial Radiation
Solar radiation varies with the day of the year as
the sunearth distance varies.
An empirical fit of the measured radiation
data

.

\

+ =
365
360n
cos 033 . 0 1
sc
G
D
G


.

\

+ +
+ +
=
2B sin 0.000077 2B s 0.000719co
B sin 0.001280 B cos 0.034221 1.000110
sc
G
D
G
n = day of the year
( )
365
360
1 n B =
The Earth
Diameter: 7900 miles
Rotates about its axisone in 24
hours
Revolve around sun in a period of
365+1/4 days.
Density=5.52 times that of H
2
O.
I: Central Core:1600 miles diameter,
more rigid than steel.
II: Mantel: Form 70% of earth mass.
III: Outer Crust: Forms 1% of total
mass.
I
II
III
Direct Radiation on Earths Surface
d
G
Difuse
Direct
Reflected
d
D
G
r
G
DN
G
u
Normal to surface
DN
G
u
u
cos
DN D
G G =
r d D t
G G G G + + =
Total radiation on a surface
Orientation of a surface on earth with respect sun or
normal to suns ray can be determined in terms basic
EarthSun angles.
Basic EarthSun Angles
Suns Ray
Time
The earth is divided into 360
o
of
circular arc by longitudinal lines
passing through poles.
The zero longitudinal line passes
through Greenwich, England.
Since the earth takes 24 hours to
complete rotation, 1 hour = 15
o
of
longitude
What it means?
A point on earth surface exactly
15
o
west of another point will
see the sun in exactly the same
position after one hour.
The position of a point P on earth's
surface with respect to sun's ray Is
known at any instant if following
angles are known:
Latitude (l), Hour angle (h)
and Suns declination angle (d) .
Local Civil Time (LCT)
Universal Time or Greenwich Civil Time (GCT)
Greenwich Civil Time: GCT time or universal time
Time along zero longitude line passing through Greenwich,
England. Time starts from midnight at the Greenwich
Local Civil Time (LCT)
Determined by longitude of the observer. Difference being 4
minutes of time for each degree or 1hr for 15
Example: What is the LCT at 75 degree west longitude
corresponding to 12:00 noon at GCT
75 degree corresponds to 75 / 15 = 5 hours
LCT at 75 degree west longitude = 12:00 PM 5 hrs= 7
AM
Standard Time
Local civil time for a selected meridan near the center of
the zone. Clocks are usually set for the same time
throughout a time zone, covering approximately 15 of
longitude.
Example
For U.S.A different standard time is set over different time
zone based on the meridian of the zone. Following is a list
of meridian line.
EST: 75 CST: 90
MST: 105 PST: 120
Also, there is Day Light Savings Time
Solar Time
Time measured by apparent daily motion of the sun
Local Solar Time, LST = LCT + Equation of time (E)
Equationoftime takes into account of nonsymmetry of
the earthly orbit, irregularity of earthly rotational speed and
other factors.
B sin 0.032077  B cos 001868 . 0 000075 . 0 ( 2 . 220 + = E
2B) sin 0.04089  2B cos 0014615 . 0
2B) sin 0.04089  2B cos 0014615 . 0
( )
365
360
1 n B =
2B) sin 0.04089  2B cos 0014615 . 0
Equation of Time and Suns
Declination Angle
Example: Local Standard Time
Determine local solar time (LST) corresponding to 11:00 a.m. CDST on
February 8 in USA at 95 west longitude.
CST (Central Standard Time) = CDST  1 hour = 11:001 = 10:00 a.m.
This time is for 90 west longitudinal line, the meridian of the central
time zone.
Local Civil Time (LCT) at 95 west longitude is 5 X 4 = 20 minutes
less advanced
LCT = CST  20 minutes = 10:00 am 20 min= 9:40 am
LST = LCT + Equation of Time (E)
From Table: For February 8 the Equation of time = 14:14
LST = 9:4014:14 = 9:26 a.m.
Solar and Wall Angles
Following solar and wall angles are needed
for solar radiation calculation:
Latitude angle, l
Sun's Zenith angle ,
Altitude angle,
Azimuth angle,
or

Suns incidence angle
Wallsolar azimuth angle,
/
Wall azimuth angle,
Latitude (l) is defined as the angular
distance of the point P north (or south) of
the equator.
l = angle between line op and projection of
op on the equatorial plane.
Declination (d)
Angle between a line extending from
the center of the sun to the center of
the earth and the projection of this
line upon the earth equatorial plane.
It is the angular distance of the sun's
rays north (or south) of the equator.
Figure shows the sun's angle of
declination.
d =  23.5
o
C at winter solstice, i.e.
sun's rays would be 23.5
o
south of
the earth's equator
d = +23.5
o
at summer solstice, i.e.
sun's rays would be 23.5
o
north of
the earth's equator.
d = 0 at the equinoxes
d = 23.45 sin [360(284+n)/365]
Hour Angle: 'h'
Hour Angle is defined as the angle measured in
the earth's equatorial plane between the projection
of op and the projection of a line from center of the
sun to the center of earth.
 At the solar room, the hour angle (h) is zero,
Morning: negative and Afternoon: positive
The hour angle expresses the time of the day
with respect to solar noon.
One hour time is represented by 360/24 or 15
degrees of hour angle

SOLAR ANGLES
= Zenith Angle = Angle
between sun's ray and a line
perpendicular to the horizontal
plane at P.
= Altitude Angle = Angle in
vertical plane between the sun's
rays and projection of the sun's
ray on a horizontal plane.
It follows + =/2
= Azimuth angle = Angle measured from north
to the horizontal projection of the sun's ray.
= Azimuth Angle = angle measured from
south to the horizontal projection of the Suns ray.


180 = +
Sun
Solar Angles
From analytical geometry
Suns zenith angle
cos () = cos (l) cos(h)cos(d)
+ sin (l) sin (d)
Also = /2 
Suns altitude angle:
sin () = cos (l) cos (h) cos (d )
+ sin (l) sin (d)
Sun's azimuth ( ) is given by
cos ( ) = sec (){cos (l) sin (d)
cos (d) sin (l) cos (h)}
Or
Cos = (sin sin l sin d )/(cos cos l)

Tilted Surface
=
= wallsolar azimuth angle
= For a vertical surface the
angel measured in horizontal
plane between the projection of
the sun's ray on that plane and a
normal to that vertical surface
= angle of tilt
= normal to surface and
normal to horizontal surface
= Wall azimuth angle
= Angle between normal to
vertical surface and south
'
 =
/
Where
= Solar Azimuth Angle

Angle of Incidence ()
Angle of incidence is the angle between
the sun's rays and normal to the surface
cos = cos cos sin + sin cos
For vertical surface
cos = cos cos , = 90
For horizontal surface
cos = sin, = 0
'
'
'
=
cond
a
conv
c a
rad
c a
a c c sol c a
R
T T
R
T T
R
T T
I A q
2
4
2
4
2 1
o t t
A simplification leads to
( )  
= T T U I A q
fi a c c sol c a
o t t
2 1
Where
= temperature of the fluid at inlet to
collector
U = over all heat transfer coefficient
empirically determined heat collection factor
fi
T
fi
T
fi
T
Collector Performance
Useful energy output of a collector
a p c tp c u
T T U G A Q =
Where
= Total absorbed incident
radiation at the absorber plate
Overall heat transfer
coefficient (Represents total heat
loss from the collector.
Temperature of the absorber
plate
Temperature of ambient air
tp
G
plate Collector A
c
=
=
c
U
=
p
T
=
a
T
One of the major problem in
using this equation is the
estimation and determination of
the collector plate temperature
.
A more useful form is given in terms of fluid inlet
temperature, and a parameter called collector heat
removal factor ( ), which can be evaluated analytically
from basic principles or measured experimentally
R
F
The heat removal factor in defined as
( )   Ta T U G A
Q
F
p c tp c
u
R
=
Where the heat removed by
the circulating fluids through
the tubes is given as
( )
fo fi p u
T T C m Q =

( )
( )   Ta T U G A
T T C m
F
p c tp c
fo fi p
R
=

Heat Removal Factor
Effective Transmittance
Absortance Product
In order to take into account of the multiple absorption,
transmission by the multiple layer of glass covers and
reduced loss of by the overall heat transfer coefficient, an
effective transmittance absorptance product is
Introduces and expressed as
( ) ( ) ( )
=
t t + to = to
n
1 i
1 i
i a
e
a 1
( ) ( ) ( )
=
t t + to = to
n
1 i
1 i
i a e
a 1
An effective transmittance
absorptance product can be
approximated for collectors
with ordinary glass
( ) to = to 01 . 1
e
Collector Efficiency
Typical collector efficiency
curves:
As absorber temperature increases,
the losses increases and the efficiency
drops.
At lower ambient temperatures the
efficiency is low because of higher loss.
As the solar irradiation on the cover
plate increases, the efficiency
increases because the loss from the
collector is fairly constant for given
absorber and ambient temperature and
becomes a smaller fraction.
c
q
t
a fi c
G
) T T ( U
A collector is characterized
by the intercept, and
the slope
( )
n R
F to
( )
e
R
F to
c R
U F
( )
( )
(
to = q
t
a fi c
e
R c
G
T T U
F
Example: Flat Plate Solar Collector
Efficiency
A 1 by 3 flatplate doubleglazed collector is available
for a solarheating applications. The transmittance of
each of the two coverplates is 0.87 and the aluminum
absorber plate has an absorptivity of =0.9. Determine
the collector efficiency when ,
and . Use and
2
/ 800 m W I
Sol
=
C T
fi
0
55 =
C T
0
10 =
( )


.

\

=
sol
fi
a c c r col
I
T T U
F o t t q
2
1
( )

.

\

=
800
10 55 5 . 3
9 . 0 87 . 0 87 . 0 9 . 0
col
q
9 . 0 F
R
=
K m W U . / 5 . 3
2
=
% 5 . 43 435 . 0 = =
col
q
Concentrating Solar Collector
Parabolic Trough
 Line focus type
Focuses the sun on to a pipe running
down the center of trough.
 Can produce temperature upto 150 200 C
 Used to produce steam for producing
electricity
 Trough can be pivoted to track the sun
Concentrating Solar Collector
Parabolic Trough
 Line focus type
Focuses the sun on to a pipe running
down the center of trough.
 Can produce temperature upto 150 200 C
 Used to produce steam for producing
electricity
 Trough can be pivoted to track the sun
Concentrating Solar Collector
Parabolic Dish Concentrator
 Point focus type
Focuses the sun on to the heat engine
located at the center of the dish.
 Can produce very high temperature
7001000C
 Used to produce vapor for producing
electricity
 Dish can be pivoted to track the sun
1/9/2014
Description of a Project Oriented
Learning Module
A typical solar projects are
discussed in the following section.
The objective is to understand some
of the basic steps to be followed.
1/9/2014
SOLAR HEATED SWIMMING POOL
Swimming pools of most motels in the United
States are currently outdoors and heated by gas
heaters. It is proposed to use solar energy to
heat the pool during the winter time.
It is also proposed to have flat plate collectors
receive energy from the sun and use the energy to
maintain the water at a comfortable temperature
year round.
Solar Heated Swimming Pool
Option2: With a Auxiliary Heater and without a Thermal Storage
Solar Collector
Swimming Pool
Auxiliary Heater
Pump
Solar Heated Swimming Pool
Option3: With a Auxiliary Heater and a Thermal Storage
Solar Collector
Swimming Pool
Auxiliary Heater
Pump
Thermal
Storage
Solar Heated Swimming Pool
Option3: With a Auxiliary Heater and a Thermal Storage
Solar Collector
Swimming Pool
Auxiliary Heater
Pump
Thermal
Storage
Known Data
1. Geographical Location:
Santa Barbara, CA
2. The Pool Dimension
12m long x 8m wide with water
depth that varies in the lengthwise
direction from 0.8m to 3.0m
1/9/2014
To be Designed , Selected or
Determined
1. Design Conditions
 A comfortable water temperature for the
indoor pool and indoor air condition
 Design outdoor conditions
2. A solar water heating system with or without
thermal storage
3. A system with or without a auxiliary gas or
electric heater
1/9/2014
4. Determine size and type of solar collector
5. Decide placement of these collectors,
their location, and orientation
7. Estimate the total cost of the system
including initial, operating and
maintenance
8. Compare these costs to those associated
with the use of a natural gas water
heating system
A Solardriven Irrigation Pump
Turbine
Solar
Collector
Condenser Pump
Irrigation
Pump
p
h A

p
m
A solarenergy driven irrigation pump operating on a
solar driven heat engine is to be analyzed and designed.
C 150 T
0
H
=
kPa 10 P
c
=
Basic Theory
The solar collector collects a fraction of incident
radiation and transfer to the circulating working
fluid, producing saturated vapor and heating the
working fluid.
( )
i , f 0 , f f u
h h m Q =

t c c u
G A Q q =
p p pump irr
H g m W A =

( )
C H f turbine
h h m W =

To be Designed , Selected or
Determined
Select: Location, time and month of the year
Determine: Incident solar radiation based on the
selected location, day and month of the year.
For Example: Over 0< t < 10
( ) Watt ,
10
t
Sin A G t G
c t
t
=
Selection and Design of Solar
Collector
Type: Flat Plate
Transmittance Absorptance Product:
Collector removal factor: = 0.024
Overall loss coefficient:
Collector efficiency:
Where
= Fluid temperature at inlet to the collector
= Ambient air temperature
= Incident solar radiation
( )


.

\

=
a
in
t
L
R c
T T
G
U
F to q
84 . 0 = to
R
F
C . m / W 0 . 8 U
0 2
L
=
in
T
a
T
t
G
Perform the analysis for the base case and assuming
a pumping rate of 10 GPM at the mid noon.
Determine the collector area needed to meet this
demand.
Plot the irrigation pump flow rate during the daylight
hours.
Estimate the total water pumped in a day
}

=
10
0
dt p
m
p
m
If the pumping rate is kept constant at 10 GPM
by using an auxiliary afterheater and
maintaining the (saturated vapor) temperature
constant at inlet to the turbine, determine the
auxiliary energy needed at the afterheater.
Repeat steps 12 with varying range of Turbine
inlet temperature and condenser pressure and .
Summarize your results for (a) solar collector
area needed, (b) total pumping rate and (c) total
auxiliary energy needed.