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CHAPTER 14 MEDIA GLOBALIZATION IN ASIA

JUNHOO HOUNG

Presented to Prof Dr Mughees-udeen Sheikh Presented by Mir Ahmad Feroz Subject: International Communication MPhill Mass Communication Roll Number-13021716-009

INTRODUCTION
In last two decades or so, media in Asia, especially in countries like China, Japan , South Korea and India, have become more and more globalized .  Asian countries are experiencing a wave of national media sensations much like that west did decade ago .

1.CHINA AN AMBITIOUS NEW PLAYER IN THE GLOBAL MEDIA ARENA
From 1949, when communist china was established, to the middle of 1970s, when the country was still under the control of Mao Zedong, the last chairman of Chinese communist and his followers , Chinese media was completely closed to the outside the world. The media was used mainly as an ideological tool by the communist party for political needs.

SITUATION AFTER THE DEATH OF MAO‟S
DEATH
After the deatn of Mao‟s in 1976 and China‟s new leader “Open Door” policy that started in the late 1970s and early 1980s have since drastically changed the country‟s all–round course, including the Mass Media system, which is one of the most enormous and complex media system in the world.

5. Newspaper advertising revenue developed from 0. Magazine developed from 930 in 1978 to 9.100 hours in 1985 to 2. 3.6 billion Chinese RMBs in 1978(about 0.AN OVERVIEW OF HISTORIC PROLIFERATION OF CHINA‟S MEDIA INDUSTRY OVER THE PAST THREE DECADES 1.00 hours in 1978 to 279000 hours in 2007 . TV broadcasting developed from 12. 4. 2.55 million hours in 2007.3 billion RMBs in 2008 (about 5$ billion dollar at that time).12$ billion dollar to 34.468 in 2008. Production of Television programming developed from 38. Newspaper developed from 186 in 1978 to 1938 in 2007.

9. the total number of books published in 1978 was only 15. 7. Advertising revenue of radio broadcasting from 18 Million Chinese RMBs(about 2.000 but in 2007 altogether 136. Television penetration was reached 96. 8.200 books were published.24% in 2007 whereas it was only 57.5 billion Chinese RMBs(about 0.3% in 1982. Digital cable television has had an astonishing growth in the last several years.000 in 2003 to 27.2 Million$) in 1986 to 6. subscribers of digital cable TV increased from total 276. .96 Million in 2007. As far as Book publishing is concerned.CONTINUED… 6.95 billion$).

CONTINUED… 10. There were just 2. The most eye-catching in chang is probably the growth of china‟s internet users . In 2008 the total revenue from China‟s media industry reached 422 billion Chinese RMBs(about 62$ billion Dollars). The internet did not emerge in China until 1997 . . 2009 users increased 338 Million. surprising total users of 220 Million in the United States. 11.2 billion people but by the June 30.1 million internet users in the country of 1.

In last two decades .CHINA RADIO INTERNATIONAL(CRI)   China Radio International was the Third Largest external broadcasting service in the world . Not only has it now replaced VOR to become second largest external broadcasting service but also in many aspects it has even surprised VOA in terms of expansion speed and broadcasting languages. Particularly in the beginning of 2000s the Chinese Communist party and government have launched a series of campaign to push Chinese media organization to “Going Out of China to internationalize themselves . and Radio Moscow( Current Name is Voice of Russia)as the second largest one. following VOA of USA as the largest one. CRI has had a rapid expansion .

with undisclosed permission of Chinese government and all kinds of support in attempt to deliver “China‟s Voice” to “ all the people of China across the world. China‟s only private owned-or the only “non-governmentally owned”. has had a quick toward an international TV broadcaster. Phoenix TV. It has also become Media Conglomerate. .satellite TV organization. This Hong Kong –based television move toward an international TV broadcaster was launched in 2000.PHOENIX TV  During last decade .

Phoenix America Channel. Print Media such as Phoenix Weekly. 3. Phoenix online Service. Phoenix Europe Channel. 2. 6. 4. Phoenix Chinese Channel. 7.PHOENIX SISTER CHANNELS 1. Phoenix Movie Channel. Phoenix News Channel. 5. .

FILM PRODUCTION  China has become third largest film production country in the world.  In 1978 China Produced 26 feature films which increased 406 feature movies in 2008 . .

BOX OFFICE REVENUE OF CHINA‟S MOVIES  The box office revenue of China‟s movies has increased dramatically as well . In 2004 the revenues a historical high about 450 million$ US demonstrating 130 % growth over in 2004  .

 The direct reason for this significant increase was mainly the advertising revenues from foreign companies during the Beijing Olympics)  .3 Billion $ US at that time). In 2008 advertising revenue from radio and TV reached (about 10.ADVERTISING INDUSTRY The advertising industry in China has grown remarkably in the last few years .

4 billion in Sydney Olympics in 2000. Adidas.BEIJING OLYMPICS       The telecasting of Beijing Olympics Games was one of the biggest events not only in china' TV history but also in the history of the world . More than 4 billion people across the world watched Television games . . Johnson & Johnson In 2008 Coca-Cola in 24% adverting expenditure. People were 3. MacDonald‟s. KFC „s increased 39% adverting expenditure. The biggest foreign sponsors were Coca-Cola. The Beijing Olympics also made many global Companies very interested in china‟s huge media market .

IMPORTANCE OF THE “OPEN DOOR POLICY”  The open door policy has not only allowed China to have opened its market to foreign companies including foreign and transitional media companies but also the government vigorously encouraged Chinese‟s Media Organization to export media and cultural products to other countries . .

The Anime(term refers to Japanese animation) and horror movies represent a special level of expertise that is not seen in any other Countries. In last several decades . JAPAN THE GLOBE SUCCESS OF JAPANESE ANIMATION   Japan is a major player in some aspects of the media and entertainment industry. Japan‟s film and animation industries have been remarkably successful both in their homes market and in the overseas market as well. and especially it has the strength in the global trading of animation and horror films.2. .

Hong Kong and US. Howl’s Morning Castle which was nominated for Oscar in 2006 and won another 8 awards in 2 2005-6 broke several records at the Japanese Box Office and was shown many foreign countries like Korea. France.BIG HIT FILMS  The big hit films in Japan.s domestic market or the awarded films at international film festivals are widely distributed abroad . . For example .

.JOIN PRODUCTION WITH USA   In order to expand its global reach . Like Disney many foreign companies are investing in animation and film productions in Japan or Joint Productions with Japanese Companies. For example . Disney is now buying Japanese Anime with games and other products for distribution in other regions. Japanese production companies started joint production with America or other Asian counterparts.

remaking a Japanese Horror film The Ring turned out to be a big hit in the US market in 2002. The Ring2 and The Grudge was the most profitable in the US market . the Ring. Remade films include The Grudge .TREND OF REMAKING OF JAPANESE FILMS   Since the late 1990s. Pulse. many American film productions have bought the remake rights from Japanese Film and Animations. Dark Water . Primarily for Japanese Horror films.

The sufficient market size of entertainment and cultural product has helped Japanese films and animation to expand the business abroad . Given the 2nd Largest entertainment market in the world .JAPAN IS THE SECOND LARGEST ENTERTAINMENT MARKET  A modernized system in production and distribution and the home market effect are some of the main factors for wide acceptance of Japanese films and animations . . Japan has good home market to support the growth of cultural products.

JAPANESE BOX OFFICE REVENUE  In 2004 . .5% for domestic films which is relatively quite high among the western nations other than United States. Japan „s box office revenues were split into 62.5% for imported films and 37.

Korean and Chinese memories of Japanese colononial rule prompted these countries to ban Japanese TV Programmes. Japanese TV programmes are less accepted by other nations. particularly other Asian countries for Political Reasons.ACCEPTANCE OF JAPANESE PROGRAMMES IN THE WORLD   Japanese animations are widely accepted all over the world. .

the Middle East and Europe. music.6$ billion US. KOREA THE SWEEPING SPREAD OF “KOREAN WAVE”  Over the past few years . and characterized products . recorded musical tapes. and films. including books. Korean popular culture. such as America. According to the Korean Ministry of Culture and tourism. animations. in 2007 exports of cultural products in Korea accounted for 1. including soap operas. so computer games.3. cartoon. has gained a regional popularity in East Asia and is now approaching in other regions of low cultural and geographical proximity as well . television programes.

CONTINUED….  A report publishes by pricewaterhousecoopers(PWC) estimated that in 2005 Korea has the third largest market of entertainment in the Asia Pacific Regions. reaching 29.6$ billion US and .

. leading other Korean television programs to take up air time in the region .KOREAN TV DRAMAS  Korean dramas are very popular among other Asian countries for example in 1999 Korean drama serial Starts My Heart became a big hit in Taiwan and China.

A satellite Television channel based in Hong Kong.KOREAN MUSIC INDUSTRY  The Korean wave in music industry began in China too in in the late 1990s . regularly air Korean pop music videos from 1998. which contributed to the huge fandom for Korean pop stars in Asia. Channel V.  .

major US distribution companies such as FOX and Colombia have added Korean films to their Global distribution runs. Shiri. a Korean blockbuster . In 1999.KOREAN FILMS  The Korean wave was seen in filmed entertainment too. In response to increasing demands for Korean film. Korean films are now spending to North America ans Europe with more Blockbusters. was released in Japan . Taiwan and Singapore. Hong Kong. attaining critical acclaim as well as large audience.  .

Game .8% of the total exports of Korean Products Cultural Products are include Audiovisual.  . Advertising. purchasing 21. The sales to both countries account for more than half of whole export. China is third largest market.KOREAN CULTURAL PRODUCTS  Japan and North America are the top importers of Korean cultural products. Book Publishing.

 .ROLE OF KOREAN GOVERNMENT FOR PROMOTING CULTURE  Some scholars believe that Korean Wave is is partially indebted to the government‟s proactive role in invigorating its cultural industry. One of the Korean president called himself “ The President of Culture”. The Korean government played an important role in guiding and facilitating the development of cultural industry.

FIVE MAIN VALUES IN POPULAR KOREAN PROGRAMS  Popular Korean programs commonly include five values. tension. participation and agreement-which are most appealing to Asian people who have a similar culture frame. .harmony. compromise.

. It is easy to find Asian Youth decorating their appearance just like any Korean celebrities in Vietnam or Taiwan.KOREAN CELEBRITIES  Korean Celebrities have a big impact on consumer culture.

4. In 2005 India released 1041 films. . India is transforming itself into a new powerhouse of filmed entertainment in the global media market . India is now becoming the world largest producer and an important exporter with growing Indian Diasporas oversea. Although by the end of 1980s India‟s film industry was still in a bad shape. INDIA THE SURGE OF BOLLYWOOD   With the growing impact on the global film industry . which was twice the number of films released by US in that year.

Bollywood was originally used to refer to India‟s for India‟s Hindi film industry in Mumbai. derived from the combination of Holly Wood and Bombay(the former name for Mumbai) the centre for Indian film Production .  .BOLLYWOOD  India‟s film industry affectionately nick named Bollywood. but the term is now becoming a globally recognized brand of Indian film Industry .

Zee TV. collecting 40% of its revenue from exports. India's biggest Hindi TV Channel has about four million subscribers abroad.THE INDIAN FILMED ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY  The Indian filmed entertainment industry is believed to garner its revenue from overseas around 200300$US Million annually . In addition .  .

 Box office revenues in these new diasporas market are higher than in the home land.INDIAN DIASPORAS  The Indian diasporas have played significant role in making the Indian film industry more stable and profitable. . The new diasporas have much higher purchase powers than the Indian home market.

5 185 .5 150 147.OVERSEAS EARRING OF INDIAN FILMS 2001-8 (IN INDIAN RS.5 360 367.5 82.5 125 70 65 70 72.5 145 140 100 102. MILLION) Rank Film Year UK NA Others Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kank Kkkg Oso Vz D Lrmb Rdb Race Mhn 2006 2001 2007 2004 2006 2006 2006 2008 2004 175 170 105 152.5 215 202.5 100 57.5 320 222.5 120 50 110 65 95 50 50 75 30 445 367.

CONTINUED…  Kabhi Alvida na kahna is probably the best example of a Bollywood films' success in the world market. earning over 445 million(11 million US$). and veer-zara was the top-grossing Bollywood film in 2006 at both domestic and international box office. .

For example .BOLLYWOOD DISTRIBUTION OFFICES   Since Bollywood has been fastest in tapping into a global business opportunities. . the top distribution house in the India and 27th in the world. has showed a good performance particularly on export. Over the last decade. Yash Raj films . many players in the industry are turning their eyes to the oversea markets and are developing new business strategies. in order to capitalize on the growing global market . Bollywood producers like Yash Chopra and Subash Ghai have set up distribution offices in UK and US .

and associated activities that are relate to film industry. Indian government has classified the film industry as an industry that is able to receive finance from the bank industry . For example . several recent changes in government regulation have positively affected the performance and exportability of Bollywood films. the Indian government provides Bollywood with neither state subsidies nor any special tax exemption. marketing.. Before 1992 it ws prohibited. However. production .GOVERNMENT POLICY REGARDING BOLLYWOOD    Policy-wise. distribution. Indian government now allow foreign direct investment in film financing.

CONTINUED…  The Bank of Baroda has invested about 500 million in Taj Mahal. and the Bank of India has invested 600 million in several projects. .

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