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Presentation Separation Process

Presented to: Engr. Qasim Ali Presented by: Usman Jamshaid Safyan Manzoor Rao Abdul Rahman

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Liquid-Liquid Extraction:
The separation of the components of a liquid

mixture by treatment with a solvent in which one or more of the desired components is preferentially soluble is known as liquidliquid extraction.

Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent

extraction.

Example:

Some Basic Steps & Extractor Design


Typical liquid-liquid extraction operations utilize the differences in the solubilities of the components of a liquid mixture. The basic steps involved include: 1. Contacting the feed with the extraction solvent. 2. Separation of the resulting phases 3. Removal/recovery of solvent from each phase.

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Let's see an example. Suppose that you have a mixture of sugar in vegetable oil (it tastes sweet!) and you want to separate the sugar from the oil. You observe that the sugar particles are too tiny to filter and you suspect that the sugar is partially dissolved in the vegetable oil.

What will you do?

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Due to addition of new solvent:


(a) A homogeneous solution may be formed and the

selected solvent is then unsuitable. (b) The solvent may be completely immiscible with the initial solvent. (c) The solvent may be partially miscible with the original solvent resulting in the formation of one pair of partially miscible liquids. (d) The new solvent may lead to the formation of two or three partially miscible liquids.

Extraction processes:
liquidliquid extraction operations, may be carried out; Batch Process 2) Continuous Process
1)

Batch Extraction

Continuous two-stage operation:

Examples:
Important applications of liquidliquid

extraction include the separation of aromatics from kerosene-based fuel oils to improve their burning qualities. The separation of aromatics from paraffin and naphthenic compounds to improve the temperature-viscosity characteristics of lubricating oils. Recovery of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions by contact with ethyl acetate

Distribution ratio:
In solvent extraction, a distribution ratio is

often quoted as a measure of how wellextracted a species is. The distribution ratio (D) is equal to the concentration of a solute in the organic phase divided by its concentration in the aqueous phase. Depending on the system, the distribution ratio can be a function of temperature, the concentration of chemical species in the system, and a large number of other parameters.

Leaching
What is Leaching? 1) Removal of a substance from a solid via a liquid extraction media.
2) The desired component diffuses into the solvent

from its natural solid form.

Leaching Process

Factors:
There are four important factors that aid in leaching:
Temperature Contact Time/Area Solvent Selection Particle size

Temperature is adjusted to optimize solubility and

mass transfer. Liquid-to-solid contact is essential for the extraction to take place and maximize contact area per unit volume reduces equipment size. Solvent selection plays an important role in solubilities as well as the separation steps that follow leaching. Nearly all leaching equipment employs some type of agitation to aid in mass transfer and to ensure proper mixing.