You are on page 1of 36

Chapter Four

Exposure, Attention,
and Perception
Key Concepts
• Consumers’ exposure to marketing stimuli
• Characteristics of attention and sustaining
consumers’ attention in products and marketing
messages
• The major senses of perception and how
consumers’ sensory perception is affected

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4|2


Chapter Overview: Exposure, Attention,
and Perception (Exhibit 4.2)

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4|3


Exposure

“…reflects the process by which the consumer


comes into contact with a stimulus.”

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4|4


Exposure
• Marketing stimuli(different types of ads)
• Factors influencing exposure
– Position of an ad
– Product distribution
– Shelf placement
• Selective exposure
• E.g During Cricket match

– Zipping
– Zapping
• Measuring exposure(reach, frequency and impact
Exposure= reach *frequency

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4|5


Shelf Placement and Manufacturers

“Manufacturers should be ready to meet the


store's criteria for placement (marketing
campaign, slotting fees), have adequate
personnel to cover sales and demos at each
store, and be prepared to give an informed,
effective presentation as to how their product
will increase product category sales.”
E.g – POP
Children products kept on the lower shelf

Source: State of Colorado Department of Agriculture, ,http://www.ag.state.co.us/mkt/fgtp/chapter3.html

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4|6


Why POP???
• To encourage
impulse buying
66% of all purchase
decisions are made at
the store (floor ads in Garuda mall)
• Increasing Ad
avoidance
• Reach the target
audience

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4|7


Why advertisers recommend
POP?

• Triggers recall
• Introduce new product
• Promote sale items
• Provide more information
• Stimulates all five senses

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4|8


Benefits to the Brand

• Brand visibility in multi-brand stores


• Encourages spot purchase
• Gives competitive advantage
• Provides brand recall

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4|9


Benefits to the Retailer

• Easy source of additional revenue

• Shows variety of brands offered

• Makes store look attractive

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 10


Benefits to the customer

• Gives knowledge of options


• Provides information
• Makes shopping interesting

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 11


How does it work?

• Manufacturers design and fit advertisements to


retailer’s showroom space.
• Either pays fee or gives discount
• For a fixed time period

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 12


Shopping cart

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 13


Window Display

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 14


Headers/Danglers

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 15


Pillars

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 16


Roll up banners

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 17


Floor Graphics

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 18


Announcements

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 19


Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 20
Digital signage

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 21


Attention

“…the process by which we devote mental


activity to a stimulus…necessary for
information to be processed…activate our
senses.”

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 22


Characteristics of Attention

• Selective

• Capable of being divided

• Limited

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 23


Focal and Nonfocal Attention

• Preattentive processing

• Hemispheric lateralization

• Preattentive processing,
brand name liking, and
choice

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 24


Hemispheric Lateralization
• Right hemisphere
­ Processing music
­ Grasping visual/spatial
information
­ Forming inferences
­ Drawing conclusions
• Left hemisphere- Processing
units that can be combined:
e.g.,
­ Counting
­ Processing unfamiliar words
­ Forming sentences
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 25
Hemispheric Lateralization

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 26


Attention
• Defines customer segments

• Habituation

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 27


Perception

“…occurs when stimuli are registered by one of


our five senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell,
and touch.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 28


Perceiving Through Vision

• Size and shape(vodafone ads in Bus stops)


• Color
• Color dimensions
• Color and physiological
responses/moods
• Color and liking

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 29


Perceiving Through Hearing

• Sonic identity
• Sound symbolism

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 30


Titan Mozart

titan.370790FF9BE531FFF60390CAFB9ABC6C03239719&sver=2&expire=1233311383&key=yt1&ipbits=0

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 31


Hutch Jingle

hutch.6429F955886402228053424797E3B76BCB494BFD&sver=2&expire=1233311755&key=yt1&ipbits=0

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 32


Cadbury

cadbury.5559E8D63A337EA2D45CF93F85AF64307DE3DD6D&sver=2&expire=1233312104&key=yt1&ipbits=0

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 33


Perceiving Through Taste

• Varying perceptions of what “tastes good”

• Culture backgrounds

• In-store marketing

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 34


Perceiving Through Smell

• Smell and physiological


response/moods
• Perfume, maggi noodles, washing powders

• Product trial (cookies in garuda mall)

• Liking
• Buying

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 35


Perceiving Through Touch

• Touch and physiological


responses/moods

• Liking

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 | 36