Chapter Four

Exposure, Attention, and Perception

Key Concepts
• Consumers’ exposure to marketing stimuli • Characteristics of attention and sustaining consumers’ attention in products and marketing messages • The major senses of perception and how consumers’ sensory perception is affected

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Chapter Overview: Exposure, Attention, and Perception (Exhibit 4.2)

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Exposure
“…reflects the process by which the consumer comes into contact with a stimulus.”

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• Marketing stimuli(different types of ads) • Factors influencing exposure – Position of an ad – Product distribution – Shelf placement • Selective exposure
• E.g During Cricket match

Exposure

– Zipping – Zapping • Measuring exposure(reach, frequency and impact
Exposure= reach *frequency

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Shelf Placement and Manufacturers
“Manufacturers should be ready to meet the store's criteria for placement (marketing campaign, slotting fees), have adequate personnel to cover sales and demos at each store, and be prepared to give an informed, effective presentation as to how their product will increase product category sales.”
E.g – POP Children products kept on the lower shelf

Source: State of Colorado Department of Agriculture,

,http://www.ag.state.co.us/mkt/fgtp/chapter3.html 4|6

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Why POP???
• To encourage impulse buying 66% of all purchase decisions are made at the store (floor ads in Garuda mall) • Increasing Ad avoidance • Reach the target audience

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Why advertisers recommend POP? • • • • • Triggers recall Introduce new product Promote sale items Provide more information Stimulates all five senses

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Benefits to the Brand • • • • Brand visibility in multi-brand stores Encourages spot purchase Gives competitive advantage Provides brand recall

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Benefits to the Retailer • Easy source of additional revenue • Shows variety of brands offered • Makes store look attractive

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Benefits to the customer • Gives knowledge of options • Provides information • Makes shopping interesting

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How does it work?
• Manufacturers design and fit advertisements to retailer’s showroom space. • Either pays fee or gives discount • For a fixed time period

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Shopping cart

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Window Display

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Headers/Danglers

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Pillars

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Roll up banners

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Floor Graphics

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Announcements

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Digital signage

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Attention
“…the process by which we devote mental activity to a stimulus…necessary for information to be processed…activate our senses.”

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Characteristics of Attention
• Selective • Capable of being divided • Limited

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Focal and Nonfocal Attention
• Preattentive processing • Hemispheric lateralization • Preattentive processing, brand name liking, and choice

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Hemispheric Lateralization
• Right hemisphere
­ Processing music ­ Grasping visual/spatial

­ ­ • Left hemisphere- Processing units that can be combined: e.g., ­ Counting ­ Processing unfamiliar words ­ Forming sentences
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information Forming inferences Drawing conclusions

Hemispheric Lateralization

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Attention
• Defines customer segments • Habituation

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Perception
“…occurs when stimuli are registered by one of our five senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch.

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Perceiving Through Vision
• • • •
Size and shape(vodafone ads in Bus stops) Color Color dimensions Color and physiological responses/moods

• Color and liking

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Perceiving Through Hearing
• Sonic identity • Sound symbolism

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Titan Mozart

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Hutch Jingle

hutch.6429F955886402228053424797E3B76BCB494BFD&sver=2&expire=1233311755&key=yt1&ipbits=0

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Cadbury

cadbury.5559E8D63A337EA2D45CF93F85AF64307DE3DD6D&sver=2&expire=1233312104&key=yt1&ipbits=0

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Perceiving Through Taste
• Varying perceptions of what “tastes good” • Culture backgrounds • In-store marketing

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Perceiving Through Smell
• Smell and physiological
response/moods

Perfume, maggi noodles, washing powders (cookies in garuda mall)

• Product trial • Liking • Buying

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Perceiving Through Touch
• Touch and physiological
responses/moods

• Liking

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