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Overview

What Is Ultrasound
Effect On Humans
Doppler Effect
Types Of Modes
How Do Ultrasound Machines Work
Color Imaging In Ultrasound
Other Applications Of Ultrasound
References
Ultrasound
Ultrasound is sound with a frequency approximately
between 20kHz and 1GHz, which is greater than the
upper limit of human hearing. Some animals, such as
dogs, dolphins and bats, who have an upper limit that is
greater than that of the human ear, can hear and/or
produce ultrasound.
In special cases humans can hear ultrasound.
(up to about 200 kHz will be audible)
Effect On Human

There is no apparent dangerous effect on humans. The


ultrasound does not interact directly with molecules to
induce the chemical change as its typical wavelength is
too long compared to the size of molecules.
But some types of ultrasound can dissolve biological cells
including bacteria. This has uses in biological science and
in killing bacteria in drinking water.
Doppler-effect
The signal on a passing vehicle will start out higher than
its stationary distance, recede as it passes, and continue
receding as it goes away from the observer
the frequency of an approaching object (that sends or
reflects sound waves) is higher than this that of object
moving away.
Types Of Modes
A-mode is the Amplitude-mode
On the X-axis is the time till which the wave-echo is
reflected and on the Y-axis is the amplitude.
Types Of Modes
M-mode is the mode where the amplitude and frequency
is exchanged on the XY-axis. This diagram is special for
medicine. (heart beat)
Often shown with the B-mode
Types Ofwhere
B-mode is the mode Modes
the wave-echo and the
amplitude is put in colour. The colour depends of the
amplitude. (black, white, grey). This mode is used in
sonography.
Types Of Modes
D-mode is the combination of B-mode and the Doppler-
effect
How Ultrasound-
machines Work
The Piezo-Effect is the base of all ultrasound-machines.
In simplified words, when a special crystal, peizoelectric
crystal, is applied with voltage then it produces
mechanical waves. In this case ultrasound.
How Ultrasound-
machines Work
This ultrasound is sent in a material and at each boundry
of the material (solid-fluid), a part of the wave gets
absorbed and a part gets reflected. This reflected
frequency is sent back to the transducer and could get
absorbed by an second crystal that converts the waves
back to electricity.
Ultrasound Machine
Color Imaging In
Ultrasound
In medicine for
velocity and flow
measurement of the
blood .

Red is flow towards


the transducer
Blue is flow away
from the transducer
Faster Flow
flow towards the
transducer
Slower
flow

ZERO FLOW

Slower
flow

Flow away
Faster from the
flow transducer

STANDARD BAR ENHANCED MAP VARIANCE MAP


Creation Of The Color
Image
Frequency shifts are determined from multiple
sample volumes along the line.
Data from 250-500 points (or gates) along the
GATES
beam line can be processed. ALONG A
SCAN LINE

SCAN LINES
Creation Of The Color
Image

The process is repeated, line by line, through the


entire sector arc that comprises 256 lines.
This completes one frame of information in 1/30th
of a second.
In order to have the image appear as though it is
continuously moving, the entire image must be
updated 30 times in a second (30 frames/sec).
Creation Of The Color
Image
Long waiting periods for the transmit-receive
sequence.
Large amounts of information need to be quickly
processed and presented in the image

256 lines
Other Applications Of
Ultrasound
Dog whistle
Bats and dolphins - for communication and
orientation
Sonar
Submarine - boat communication
Ultrasound - welding (for plastic)
Material testing (if there is a crack in the material-
mainly A-mode)
Disinfection of instruments (medical)
Shock waves for destroying kidney stones
References
www.echoincontext.com
www.folk.ntnu.no/stoylen/strainrate/Ultrasound/
www.medcyclopaedia.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_ultrasonography
http://biofyzika.lfp.cuni.cz/file.php/1/referaty/
http://www.tecn.upf.es/~afrangi/ibi/UltrasoundImaging.pdf