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GLANCING THROUGH CITATIONS: ANALYZING A CORPUS OF READING DIGESTS WITHIN A SLA COURSE

GILDARDO PALMA LARA, PhD in Education

Appropriate reference to other texts is an essential feature of most academic papers, and researchers should expect courses in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) to sensitize learners to the choices that are available to them when they decide to refer to other texts (Aston, 1996; Burnard & McEnery, 2000; Johns, 1997; Swales, 1986, 1990). In this exploratory case study the researcher will take into account SLA textbook reading digests based on The Cornell Note Taking System Genre (as used by Pauk, 2001). Such note taking system follows Swales (1990) integral/non-integral citation schema.

Objectives: 1. To classify the different citation styles according to Swaless (1981, 1986, 1990) inventory to shed light on teacherstudents use of due academic sources in a SLA course in the open B.A. in ELT at the Faculty of Languages at the State University of Puebla.

2. To prioritize basic research that builds upon English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research corpora in this SLA program. 3. To exemplify Pauks (2001) rhetorical moves when carrying out reading digests for a SLA textbook chapter

Non-integral citations are performed for a variety of functions. The first one is to attribute a proposition to another author (Swales, 1981, 1986, 1990). This may be a statement of what is known to be true, such as in the factual report of findings and results in other research, or the acknowledgment of an idea to another, as in the following example:

Non integral citations

Source Within SLA research, input obtained via interaction has been conceptualized and researched in terms of comprehensible input (Krashen, 1981; cited in Gass &Varonis, 1994), negotiation of meaning (Long, 1983; Swain & Lapkin, 1998), and comprehensible output (Swain 1985, 1995, Swain & Lapkin, 1995).
1.

1. Source

Interaction, broadly stated, refers to communication among individuals, particularly when they are negotiating meaning or working to prevent a breakdown in communication (Gass, 1997; Long, 1991a; Pica, Doughty & Young, 1986; Gass & Mackey, 2000).

2. Identification

Ellis stated over ten years ago that communicative referential tasks serve to test the transferability of research insights (1997: 230). This assertion is further sustained today (see Gass, Mackey & Ross-Feldman 2005).

3. Reference

Software sound forge provided this researcher with the efficient computational features to make digital audio editing fast and easy. Mp3 audio files were easily dissected into multiple regions. Once created, regions were selected and played in the data window. By doing so, the researcher was able to tag important time positions -five time intervals of two minutes- with markers (Gates, 2010).

4. origin

A crystal-clear distinction could be made between integral citations that control a lexical verb (Verb controlling) and those which do not (Naming). A third kind is the reference to a person that is not a full citation, i.e. a Non-citation form (Swales, 1981, 1986, 1990).

5. INTEGRAL CITATIONS

Mackey and Philip (1998) point out that uptake, as defined by Lyster and Ranta (1997), may be the wrong measure to use in determining effectiveness. Their data represent an attempt to go beyond the turn immediately following a recast.

1. Verb controlling

NS: number two, isthe man look for help NNS: uh-huh, ((yes)) for help. NS: help, you know Aah! Help (shouts softly) NNS: uh-huh ((yes)) NS: no, up HELP. NNS: help NS: yeah!...he asked, he askeda manforhelp. NNS:...for help NS: yeah he askedthe manfor telephone. (Taken from Hawkins, 1985)

2. Naming

Pica, Holliday, Lewis & Morgenthalers (1989) purpose of study is based on the claim that negotiated interactions are important not only because they provide non-native speakers (NNSs) with an opportunity to receive input, which they have made comprehensible through negotiation []

Naming

In Pica et al, intermediate ESL acquirers interacted with native speakers. Due to the fact that the situation in Pica et al did not promote participants interviews (immediate recalled sessions), the conversations in this study were thoroughly based on communicative referential tasks designed to require negotiation and comprehensible output. Picas et al. methodology was expressed by measuring speech production through communication units (c-units), negotiation moves and output (interactional modifications) moves.

3. Noncitation

Cornell

The Cornell Note Taking System

Resultados

Preliminary results

In this paper we have described a range of citational practices in academic writing along with their linguistic realisations. We have also reviewed the extent to which published teaching materials provide learners with opportunities to develop their understanding of, and capacity to form, appropriate citations in their own writing, and found that, at the moment, these offer relatively relevant constructive support to apprentice writers

Conclusion

In this vein, it can be appreaciated that novice writers used source and verb controlling styles to a great extent which display a combination of nonintegral and integral citation moves.

Conclusions

By analysing these texts with word processing software or dedicated corpus tools (or by working with the results of teacher led analysis), students will be able to develop a fuller understanding of the cultural and linguistic role of citation in the field of SLA and be much better placed to write well formed and appropriate academic texts

Conclusions