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Major Connectors

Functions of a Major Connector

Unification Partial denture acts as one unit Connects various parts

Functions of a Major Connector

Stress Distribution Distributes functional loads to both teeth & mucosa

Functions of a Major Connector

Cross-Arch Stabilization (Counterleverage) Bracing elements on one side of the arch providing stability to the other

Requirements of a Major Connector

Rigidity Functions as one unit

To Increase Rigidity
Use a more rigid alloy
Chrome-cobalt > gold alloys; cast > wrought

1/2 round > 1/2 pear shaped > flat bars

To Increase Rigidity
Increase the bulk as the length increases Corrugate linguo-plate or rugae areas

Non-Interference with Tissues Should not enter undercut areas avoid by changing path of insertion or by using blockout

Non-Interference With Tissues

Avoid terminating on: Free gingival margin Cross abruptly at 90o Relief is used to minimize impingement

(Fig 2-17, Stewart's)

Non-Interference With Tissues

Avoid terminating on: Hard structures such as the midpalatal suture or mandibular tori Place relief

Non-Interference With Tissues

Avoid terminating on:
Lingual frenum & the movable soft palate Soft tissue movements must also be allowed Careful intraoral exam

Minimize Food Impaction

Locate margins away from the FGM Eliminate "traps" or large concavities where food can collect

Smooth transition from connector to denture base - butt joint

Line angles and edges should be smooth and rounded Borders should not interfere with speech

(Fig 2-21, Stewart's)

Mandibular Major Connectors

Lingual Bar Lingual Plate Continuous Bar

Mandibular Major Connectors

Lingual Bar Most common in mandibe Use whenever possible

Mandibular Major Connectors

Lingual Bar Shape Flat on tissue side Convex or tear-drop on tongue side (1/2 pear shape, with thin edge toward teeth)

(Fig 2-35, Stewart's)

Mandibular Major Connectors

Lingual Bar Size Occluso-gingival width = 4 to 6 mm Thickness = l.5 to 2 mm

Inferior Border Mandible

Patient lifts tongue Activates floor of mouth Measure from tip of probe to free gingival margin

Inferior Border Mandible

Record values in chart, transfer to cast

Lingual Bar
Position Superior border l.5-2.0 mm or more below FGM As far from gingival margin as possible

(Fig 2-15, Stewart's)

Potential Impingement
Anterior major connector moves toward tissue as the posterior portion is loaded Space needed more when ridge is less vertical

(Fig 2-33, Stewart's)

Mandibular Major Connector Relief

Eliminates impingement Wax spacer (relief) placed under major connector one thickness of 30 gauge wax

Lingual Plate (Linguoplate)

Lingual bar with extension over cingula of anterior teeth Use where a lingual bar cannot be used

Lingual Plate Indications

Potential Impingement from lingual bar High floor of the mouth Prominent lingual frenum Lingual tori

Lingual Plate
Rest at each end of lingual plate Prevents forces being directed facially Easier denture tooth addition than bar

Lingual Plate Variations

May show through embrasures

(Fig 2-41 & 43, Stewart's)

Continuous Bar Retainer

(Kennedy Bar, Double Lingual Bar)

Lingual bar with secondary bar above cingula Secondary bar acts as indirect retainer

Continuous Bar Retainer

Potential food trap between two bars Normally avoid

Maxillary Major Connectors

Anterior-Posterior Palatal Strap Full Palatal Strap Palatal Strap Anterior Palatal Strap

Maxillary Major Connectors

Terminate 4.0 mm or more from free gingival margin when possible

Anterior-Posterior Palatal Strap

Maximum rigidity Minimum bulk Use in most cases Especially torus palatinus

Anterior-Posterior Palatal Bar

A narrow (A-P) variation of anteriorposterior palatal strap Double palatal bar connector Requires greater bulk for rigidity

Anterior-Posterior Palatal Bar

More objectionable to the patient Strap connectors provide greater distribution of stresses

Full Palatal Plate

Maximum tissue support Connector of choice in long distal extension cases Six or less anterior teeth remain

Full Palatal Plate

Abutments are periodontally involved Maximum stress distribution Flabby tissue Shallow palatal vault

Full Palatal Plate

Greater stability and stress distribution Not used with torus Increases retention

Full Palatal Plate

Connector should: Be fabricated of uniformly thin metal Have accurate anatomic reproduction of the ruggae improves strength and rigidity

Full Palatal Plate

Connector should:
Cover same area as complete denture posteriorly Have large surface area of mucosal contact improves potential for retention

Full Palatal Plate

Generally of cast metal Acrylic resin used in interim prostheses

Palatal Strap
Usually use for Class III & IV cases Wide anterio-posteriorly

Palatal Bar
Dont use Narrow anterio-posteriorly Thick occluso-gingivally Palatal bar objectionable due to bulk

(Fig 2-24, Stewart's)

Palatal Strap (or Bar)

Never use in cases involving distal extensions or replacement of anterior teeth since it must be made bulky for rigidity Relief may be required over bony midline Not used with torus

Anterior Palatal Plate

(U-Shaped or "Horse-Shoe" Palatal Connector)

Poor connector Never use unless absolutely necessary Requires bulk in the rugae area (where the tongue requires freedom) for rigidity

Anterior Palatal Plate

Too flexible Allows movement at the posterior Traumatic to the residual ridge Use only where torus prohibits other connectors

Flexes, impinging on soft tissue

Unilateral RPD
Dangerous Avoid aspiration