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Our G-enealogy

Brough Turner
Founder & CTO

Ashtonbrooke.com
broughturner@gmail.com http://blogs.broughturner.com

Our G-enealogy
How the history of cellular technology helps us understand 4G technology and business models and their likely impact on wireless broadband • Brief history of cellular wireless telephony
– Radio technology: TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA – Mobile core network architectures

• Demographics & market trends today
– 3.5G, WiMAX, LTE & 4G migration paths

Google “3G Tutorial” “4G Tutorial”

• Implications for the next 2-5 years
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Outrageous ideas
• 5 GHz spectrum better than 700 MHz
• 2020: LTE* >80%; WiMAX* <15%
– * i.e. LTE family of networks vs WiMAX evolution

• Should ask: Wi-Fi vs LTE + WiMAX
– e.g. user owned versus service provider owned

• Value of TV white spaces: Secondary access • Open 3 GHz – 10 GHz to all
– License exempt on secondary access basis
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Mobiles overtake fixed Source: ITU World ICT Indicators. June 2008 4 .

CDMA GPRS – mux packets in voice timeslots Improved modulation.5 4 5 . Multi-path (MIMO). then 28 Mbps & 42/84 Mbps future evolution LTE: potentially >100 Mbps with adequate spectrum (20 MHz) 3 3.4 Kbps (circuit data) 15 .4 Mbps (EVDO) 2–14 Mbps (HSPA).14. using CDMA variants More modulation tweaks New modulation (OFDMA).5 Analog Digital – TDMA.Mobile Generations G 1 2 2.6 .4 Kbps. 500 Kbps – 2. All IP Summary Data Rates Typical 2. 200 – 384 Kbps (UMTS). max 22 Kbps 9.40 Kbps 50 – 144 Kbps (1xRTT).

Enormous technology change but commercial issues trump technology and legal-regulatory trumps all 6 .

demonstrate forms of wireless communications 8 . Jagdish Chandra Bose and others.Origins of Wireless Communications • 1864: James Clark Maxwell – Predicts existence of radio waves • 1886: Heinrich Rudolph Hertz – Demonstrates radio waves • 1895-1901: Guglielmo Marconi – Demonstrates wireless communications over increasing distances • Also in the 1890s – Nikola Tesla. Alexander Stepanovich Popov.

First Mobile Radio Telephone. 1924 Courtesy of Rich Howard 9 .

paging. handoffs 2 7  Sectors improve reuse ● every 3 cells possible 10 .Cellular Mobile Telephony   Antenna diversity Cellular concept ● Bell Labs (1957 & 1960) 2 3 1 6 4 7 5 3 1 2 4 5 6 1 1 5 7 2 3 6 4 7 5 3  Frequency reuse ● typically every 7 cells 2   Handoff as caller moves Modified CO switch ● HLR.

later at 900 MHz (NMT900) • Total Access Communications System (TACS) – British design. similar to AMPS. two 20 MHz bands. TIA-553 • Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) – Sweden. deployed 1985 11 . Demark & Finland – Launched 1981 – 450 MHz. deployed in Japan (’79) & US (’83) – 800 MHz.First Generation (nearly all retired) • Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) – US trials 1978. Norway.

Add new services • Wide diversity of 2G systems – – – – 12 IS-54/ IS-136 Digital AMPS. digital signal processing • Utilize/extend ―Intelligent Network‖ concepts – Improve fraud prevention. iDEN IS-95 CDMA (cdmaOne) GSM .2nd Generation – digital systems • Leverage technology to increase capacity – Speech compression. PDC (Japan) DECT and PHS.

2G “CDMA” (cdmaOne) • Code Division Multiple Access – all users share same frequency band – discussed in detail later as CDMA is basis for 3G • Qualcomm demo in 1989 – claimed improved capacity & simplified planning • First deployment in Hong Kong late 1994 • Major success in Korea (1M subs by 1996) • Adopted by Verizon and Sprint in US • Easy migration to 3G (same modulation) 13 .

many competitors. lowest cost to deploy – network effect took hold in late 1990s 14 .GSM – Global System for Mobile • Originally ―Groupe Spécial Mobile ‖ – joint European effort beginning 1982 – Focus: seamless roaming all Europe • Services launched 1991 – time division multiple access (8 users per 200KHz) – 900 MHz band. then 850/1900 MHz • GSM – dominant world standard today – well defined interfaces. later 1800 MHz.

GSM Dominant Today • GSM+3GSM used by 88% of subscribers worldwide • Asia leads with 42% of all mobile subscriptions – AT&T and T-Mobile use GSM/3GSM in US today GSM Subscribers Source: Wireless Intelligence / GSM Association 15 .

general packet radio service • Synchronization between cells – Minimize interference.high speed circuit-switched data • GPRS . help fix mobile’s location • AMR vocoder – increase capacity (& fidelity) • Frequency hopping (to overcome fading) • Discontinuous transmission (more calls/ cell) • Cell overlays with reuse partioning 16 .GSM substantially enhanced Widely deployed  significant payback for enhancements • HSCSD .

time and coding e. UMTS World 4G and future wireless systems optimize a combination of frequency. 3G Multi-Access Technologies Courtesy of Petri Possi.g. 2G. OFDMA & SC-FDMA (discussed later) 17 .1G.

2G & 3G – Code Division Multiple Access • Spread spectrum modulation – originally developed for the military – resists jamming and many kinds of interference – coded modulation hidden from those w/o the code • All users share same (large) block of spectrum – one for one frequency reuse – soft handoffs possible • All 3G radio standards based on CDMA – CDMA2000. W-CDMA and TD-SCDMA 18 .

Courtesy of Suresh Goyal & Rich Howard 19 .

telecom bubble burst. later IP) • But deployment took much longer than expected – No killer data app.The 3G Vision • Universal global roaming – Sought 1 standard (not 7). (but got 3: 3GSM. much of the vision was vendor-driven 20 . new spectrum costly. data & video) • Increased capacity (more spectrally efficient) • Data-centric architecture (ATM at first. CDMA 2000 & TD-SCDMA) • Increased data rates • Multimedia (voice.

but now a dead end • UMTS (W-CDMA.3G Radio technology today • CDMA 2000 – Multi Carrier CDMA – Evolution of IS-95 CDMA. HSPA) – Direct Spread CDMA – Defined by 3GPP Paired spectrum bands • TD-SCDMA – Time Division Synchronous CDMA – Defined by Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology under the Ministry of Information Industry Single spectral band with time division duplexing 21 .

at least at first • Couldn’t compete with GSM’s critical mass – Last straw when Verizon Wireless selected 3GPP’s Long Term Evolution (LTE) for their 4G network – Verizon selection 11/07 – Qualcomm abandons further development 11/08 22 .Why CDMA 2000 lost out • Had better migration story from 2G to 3G – Evolution from original Qualcomm CDMA (IS-95) – cdmaOne operators didn’t need additional spectrum • Higher data rates than UMTS.

3GSM (UMTS. WCDMA.3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Japan USA • Partnership of 6 regional standards groups. HSPA) & LTE 23 23 . which translate 3GPP specifications to regional standards • Controls evolution of GSM.

+… – leverages GSM’s dominant position • Legally mandated in Europe and elsewhere • Requires substantial new spectrum – 5 MHz each way (symmetric) at a minimum • Slow start (was behind CDMA 2000).UMTS (3GSM) is market leader • GSM evolution: W-CDMA. but now the accepted leader – Network effect built on GSM’s >80% market share – Surely LTE will benefit in the same fashion… 24 . HSPA. HSDPA.

6 MHz.TD-SCDMA (Time division synchronous CDMA) • Chinese development – IPR bargaining tool with West? Late to market. time division duplex (TDD) with high spectral efficiency. but big deployment plans • Single spectral band – unpaired spectrum. as little as 1. good match for asymmetrical traffic! • Power amplifiers must be very linear – relatively hard to meet specifications 25 .

China 3G • Largest mobile market in world (630 M subs) – Largest population in world (1. 15K BSs & 60K handsets • 3G granted January 2009 – China Mobile: TD-SCDMA – China Unicom: 3GSM (UMTS) – China Telecom: CDMA 2000 26 .3 billion) • Home-brew 3G standard: TD-SCDMA – 3G licenses were delayed until TD-SCDMA worked – 2008 trials: 10 cities.

3G Adoption – DoCoMo Japan
2G: mova

3G: FOMA

Potential to discontinue 2G services in 2010 …

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3G Subscribers (2Q 2008)
• 18% on 3G; 82% on 2G; 0.01% on 1G • EU & US 3G penetration approaching 30% • US penetration rate soaring
3-month averages ending June 2008 & June 2007

All mobile subscribers ages 13+

Source: comScore MobiLens

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3G data-only subscribers
• Soaring adoption of 3G ―USB Data Modems‖
– 92% of all 3G data bytes in Finland in 2H07

• Informa on EU 3G devices, May 2008
– 101.5M 3G devices: 64 M handsets, 37M 3G data modems

• In-Stat/ ABI Research
– In-Stat: 5M cellular modems in 2006 – ABI Research 300% growth in 2007, i.e. 20M? Enormous growth, from a relatively small base…
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Diverse Mobile Wireless Spectrum 30 .

Wireless Migration 31 .

OFDM →OFDMA MIMO Wireless capacity / throughput 4G LTE 3G 2G First cell phones AMPS WiMAX Wi-Fi UMTS/HSPA CDMA GSM 1970 32 1980 1990 2000 2010 .

WMAN .11 – WLAN (wireless local area network) .WWAN ITU-T – United Nations telecommunications standards organization Accepts detailed standards contributions from 3GPP. IEEE and other groups 33 3GPP – WWAN (wireless wide area network) IEEE 802.16 – WMAN (wireless metropolitan area network) IEEE 802.ITU-T Framework Pervasive connectivity WLAN .

e. ETSI and others • IMT-Advanced – New communications framework: deployment ~2010 to 2015 – Data rates to reach around 100 Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps for nomadic networks (i.ITU Mobile Telecommunications • IMT-2000 – Global standard for third generation (3G) wireless – Detailed specifications from 3GPP. WLANs) – High mobility case via either or both evolved LTE & WiMAX – 802. 3GPP2.11ac and 802.11ad addressing the nomadic case 34 .

and 64QAM – 1/3 coding rate. and a contention-free internal interleaver • Advanced MIMO spatial multiplexing – (2 or 4) x (2 or 4) downlink and uplink 35 . 16QAM.LTE highlights • Sophisticated multiple access schemes – DL: OFDMA with Cyclic Prefix (CP) – UL: Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) with CP • Adaptive modulation and coding – QPSK. two 8-state constituent encoders.

4G Technology – OFDMA • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access – Supercedes CDMA used in all 3G variants • OFDMA = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) plus statistical multiplexing – Optimization of time.11a & 802. frequency & code multiplexing • OFDM already deployed in 802.11g – Took Wi-Fi from 11 Mbps to 54 Mbps & beyond 36 .

thus eliminating inter-carrier interference – Varies bits per sub-carrier based on instantaneous received power 37 . chosen to be orthogonal.Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing – Many closely-spaced sub-carriers.

g.Statistical Multiplexing (in OFDMA) • Dynamically allocate user data to sub-carriers based on instantaneous data rates and varying sub-carrier capacities • Highly efficient use of spectrum • Robust against fading. for mobile operation 38 . e.

FDMA vs. OFDMA • OFDMA more frequency efficient • Dynamically map traffic to frequencies based on their instantaneous throughput Guard band Channel FDMA 39 OFDMA .

range and directionality 40 .4G Technology .MIMO   Multiple Input Multiple Output smart antenna technology Multiple paths improve link reliability and increase spectral efficiency (bps per Hz).

Municipal Multipath Environment 41 .

multiple singleantenna stations can transmit simultaneously • Space-Time Codes – Transmit diversity such as Alamouti code reduces fading 42 2x2 Collaborative MIMO give 2x peak data rate by transmitting two data streams . Collaborative MIMO – Multiple streams transmitted – Multi-antenna receivers separate the streams to achieve higher throughput – On uplink.SDMA = Smart Antenna Technologies • Beamforming – Use multiple-antennas to spatially shape the beam • Spatial Multiplexing a.k.a.

16m uplink • Similar structure and performance to OFDMA – Single carrier modulation with DFT-spread orthogonal frequency multiplexing and FD equalization • Lower Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) – Improves cell-edge performance – Transmit efficiency conserves handset battery life 43 .4G Technology – SC-FDMA • Single carrier multiple access – Used for LTE uplinks – Being considered for 802.

dynamic per user resource allocation Base station scheduler for uplink and downlink resource allocation – Resource allocation information conveyed on a frame‐by frame basis Support for TDD (time division duplex) and FDD (frequency division duplex) TDD: single frequency channel for uplink and downlink DL UL DL UL FDD Paired channels 44 .Key Features of WiMAX and LTE • • • • • OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) Users are allocated a slice in time and frequency Flexible.

64QAM Downlink) WiMAX Release 1.3G/4G Comparison Peak Data Rate (Mbps) Downlink HSPA (today) 14 Mbps Uplink 2 Mbps 50-250 msec Access time (msec) HSPA (Release 7) MIMO 2x2 HSPA + (MIMO. 10 MHz channel LTE (Release 8). 5+5 MHz channel 28 Mbps 42 Mbps 40 Mbps 43.6 Mbps 10 Mbps 21.2 Mbps 11.6 Mbps 11.6 Mbps 50-250 msec 50-250 msec 40 msec 30 msec 45 .0 TDD (2:1 UL/DL ratio).

WiMAX vs. designed to support legacy services while WiMAX assumes greenfield deployments 46 . at least partially. but cannot do this as easily at the IEEE-based 802. LTE • Commonalities – IP-based – OFDMA and MIMO – Similar data rates and channel widths • Differences – Carriers are able to set requirements for LTE through organizations like NGMN and LSTI.16 – LTE backhaul is.

Commercial Issues LTE WiMAX • Deployments likely slower than projected But • Eventual migration path for GSM/3GSM. i. likely maintained for years • Dedicated spectrum in many countries But • Likely < 15% share by 2020 & thus more costly 47 .e. for > 80% share • Will be lowest cost & dominant in 2020 • 2-3 year lead.

MBMS. Better latency & QoS for VoIP LTE. a new air interface based on OFDM modulation 48 . PoC & WLAN integration HSPA+. GAN. All-IP W-CDMA – Wideband CDMA modulation * Rush job? HSxPA – High Speed (Download/Upload) Packet Access MBMS – Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service GAN – Generic Access Network PoC – Push-to-talk over Cellular LTE – Long Term Evolution.3G Partnership Project Defines migration GSM to UMTS/ 3GSM to LTE Release 98 99 4 5 6 7 8 Specs complete 1998 1Q 2000 2Q 2001 1Q 2002 4Q 2004 4Q 2007 4Q 2008 * First deployed Major new features defined Last purely 2G GSM release 2003 2004 2006 2007 future future W-CDMA air interface Softswitching IP in core network HSDPA & IP Multimedia System (IMS) HSUPA.

Core Network Architectures • Two widely deployed architectures today • 3GPP evolved from GSM-MAP – Used by GSM & 3GSM operators (88% of subs globally) – ―Mobile Application Part‖ defines signaling for mobility. etc.e. i. authentication. TDMA & CDMA 2000 – GAIT (GSM ANSI Interoperability Team) allowed interoperation.. roaming • Evolving to common ―all IP‖ vision based on 3GPP 49 . • 3GPP2 evolved from ANSI-41 MAP – ANSI-41 used with AMPS.

Typical 2G Mobile Architecture PSDN BSC BTS BSC HLR SMS-SC MSC/VLR BSC PLMN MSC/VLR BSC BTS Base Transceiver Station BSC Base Station Controller GMSC Tandem CO PSTN Tandem CO CO MSC Mobile Switching Center VLR Visitor Location Register HLR Home Location Register 50 .

… HLR MSC MSC SMS-SC VLR MSC Signaling Plane (SS7) Transport Plane (Voice) 51 . 2G mobile networks have one network plane for voice circuits and another network plane for signaling • Some elements reside only in the signaling plane – HLR.Separation of Signaling & Transport • Like PSTN. VLR. SMS Center.

Signaling in Core Network • Based on SS7 – ISUP and specific Application Parts • GSM MAP and ANSI-41 services – mobility. SMS. call-handling. supplementary services. … • Location registers for mobility management – HLR: home location register has permanent data – VLR: visitor location register – local copy for roamers 52 . O&M. authentication.

.PSTN-to-Mobile Call PLMN (Visitor) PLMN (Home) PSTN Signaling over SS7 MAP/ IS41 (over TCAP) ISUP (SCP) HLR Where is the subscriber? SCP (STP) 4 Provide Roaming 3 5 Routing Info VMSC 6 IAM GMSC (SSP) 514 581 .. 1 IAM (STP) (SSP) 2 MS BSS VLR (SSP) 53 .

GSM 2G Architecture BSS Abis NSS E A B MS BTS BSC MSC VLR C D H GMSC PSTN PSTN SS7 HLR AuC BSS Base Station System BTS Base Transceiver Station BSC Base Station Controller MS Mobile Station NSS Network Sub-System MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller VLR Visitor Location Register HLR Home Location Register AuC Authentication Server GMSC Gateway MSC GSM Global System for Mobile communication 54 .

2.5G Architectural Detail 2G MS (voice only) BSS Abis NSS E A B MS BTS BSC MSC Gs Gb 2G+ MS (voice&data) Gr HLR AuC VLR C D H GMSC PSTN PSTN SS7 Gc Gi Gn PSDN SGSN IP GGSN BSS Base Station System NSS Network Sub-System SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node BTS Base Transceiver Station BSC Base Station Controller MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller VLR Visitor Location Register HLR Home Location Register AuC Authentication Server GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node GPRS General Packet Radio Service 55 GMSC Gateway MSC .

3G rel99 Architecture (UMTS) 2G MS (voice only) BSS Abis E A B BSC BTS 2G+ MS (voice & data) Gb MSC Gs IuCS VLR C D H GMSC PSTN CN PSTN SS7 Gr HLR Gn RNS ATM Iub IuPS RNC Node B 3G UE (voice & data) BSS Base Station System BTS Base Transceiver Station BSC Base Station Controller RNS Radio Network System RNC Radio Network Controller CN Core Network AuC Gc Gi PSDN SGSN IP GGSN SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller VLR Visitor Location Register HLR Home Location Register AuC Authentication Server GMSC Gateway MSC UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System 56 .

Soft Switching 2G MS (voice only) BSS Abis A Mc BSC BTS 2G+ MS (voice & data) RNS ATM Iub IuPS RNC Node B 3G UE (voice & data) BSS Base Station System BTS Base Transceiver Station BSC Base Station Controller RNS Radio Network System RNC Radio Network Controller CN Core Network MSC Mobile-service Switching Controller VLR Visitor Location Register SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node Gn SGSN GGSN Gb MSC Server Gs IuCS Gr HLR AuC VLR CS-MGW Nc Mc B C D H GMSC server PSTN CN Nb CS-MGW PSTN SS7 IP/ATM Gc Gi PSDN HLR Home Location Register AuC Authentication Server GMSC Gateway MSC 57 .3G rel4 .

Mg=SIP) IM-MGW IP Multimedia-MGW 58 .3GPP rel5 ― IP Multimedia 2G MS (voice only) BSS Abis A/IuCS Mc BSC BTS 2G+ MS (voice & data) RNS Iub IuPS RNC Node B 3G UE (voice & data) IM IM IP Multimedia sub-system MRF Media Resource Function IM-MGW Gb/IuPS MSC Server Gs IuCS ATM Gr HSS Gn SGSN GGSN VLR CN Nb CS-MGW CS-MGW Nc Mc B C D H GMSC server PSTN PSTN SS7 IP/ATM Gc Gi AuC IP Network Gs PSTN IP Mg MRF Mc MGCF CSCF CSCF Call State Control Function MGCF Media Gateway Control Function (Mc=H248.

3GPP2 Defines IS-41 Evolution • 3rd Generation Partnership Project ―Two‖ – Evolution of IS-41 to ―all IP‖ more direct (skips ATM stage). but not any faster – Goal of ultimate merger (3GPP + 3GPP2) remains • • • • • 59 1xRTT – IP packets (like GPRS) 1xEVDO – Evolution data-optimized 1xEVDV – abandoned 3x – Triples radio data rates Universal Mobile Broadband (UMB) – abandoned .

0 ATIS NGN FG ITU-T NGN FG TISPAN R1 3GPP2 MMD 3GPP IMS R6 3GPP IMS R5 3GPP Release 4 2000      2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 3GPP2 — CDMA2000 multi-media domain (MMD) based on 3GPP IMS R5 TISPAN — evolves NGN architecture for fixed networks based on 3GPP IMS ITU-T NGN Focus Group — venue to make TISPAN NGN a global spec ATIS NGN Focus Group — formally collaborating with ETSI as of April 2005 PacketCable Release 2.NextGen Networks (NGN) Converging Following 3GPP lead 3GPP IMS R7 Packet Cable 2.0 — aligning with portions of 3GPP 60 .

3GPP R7 / TISPAN IMS 3GPP Service Layer OSA-SCS App Server IM-SSF SCIM S-CSCF Online CCCF HSS SLF Charging Function Offline Service Plane 3GPP Control Layer P-CSCF I-CSCF BGCF MRFC MGCF IBCF Control Plane NASS PDF RACS ETSI TISPAN Extension A-BGF MRFP T-MGF SGF I-BGF IWF Access/Transport Plane Other Networks Internal IP Networks PSTN External IP Networks 61 .

IMS / NGN Vision • One core network for ―any access‖ – Based on IP. with extensions – Wireline and wireless transparency • Access and bandwidth will be commodities. services are the differentiator – Per-session control supports per-application quality of service (QoS) and per-application billing • Voice is just application – ―Easily‖ integrated with other applications… 62 . using IETF standards.

Lucent 63 OSS/ BSS .IMS Story: Convergence Traditional Services TV Caller ID Phone Tools Push to Talk TV Caller ID IMS Services Phone Tools Push to Talk Application Application Application Application Application Application OSS/ BSS OSS/ BSS Media Functions Access Delivery Media Functions Access Delivery Media Functions Access Delivery OSS/ BSS Subscriber Data Subscriber Data Subscriber Data Subscriber Data Media Functions IP Multimedia Subsystem Wireline Packet Cable Wireless Wifi WiMax Wireline Packet Cable Wireless Wifi WiMax Source: Team Analysis.

mobile operators have had no incentive to deploy IMS for voice services 64 . and enables differential billing for applications & content • Reduce capital spending – Converge all services on common infrastructure – Focus limited resources on core competencies • To date.IMS / NGN Value Proposition • Generate new revenue from new services – Per-session control allows IMS to guarantee QoS for each IP session.

LTE and IMS • LTE is an all-IP network – Not compatible with legacy voice services – Assumes the use of IP Multimedia System (IMS) • Initial LTE networks will be data only • Initial LTE handsets will be multi-modal. supporting HSPA and earlier systems for voice telephony • VOLGA Forum working on a fix – Voice over LTE via Generic Access 65 .

… • 15 year summary: A few applications. Mobile (HLR). Voice mail.Long Term Parallels: IN & IMS Intelligent Network • Free operators from equipment provider lock-in • Separate applications from basic call control • Open protocols and APIs for applications Intelligent Network Application Successes • FreePhone. very widely deployed 66 . Pre-paid.

LTE’s System Architecture Evolution (SAE) RAN (Radio access network) SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) PCRF (policy and charging function) HSS (Home Subscriber Server) MME (Mobility Management Entity) SAE (System Architecture Evolution) 67 Diagram by Huawei .

5% .Mobile Service Revenues • > $800 billion in 2007. All other non-voice services: 9. growing 6%-7% per year – > $1 trillion by 2012 • Voice services dominate: 81% • SMS services: 9.5% Source: Portio Research 68 .

Images courtesy of Jon Stern 69 .

initiatives for Symbian. Adobe AIR. WinMobile.5G operators in US by 2010 – Smart phone penetration soaring • Operators’ control of handset software slipping – iPhone and Android application stores.Mobile Services Futures • Affordable open mobile Internet access coming – Five competing 3. 70 . etc.

are available 71 .The Internet is the killer platform • Mobile Internet access driving 3G data usage • Future business models an open question • Slides from yesterday’s Mobile Broadband discussion.

Enormous technology change but commercial issues trump technology and legal-regulatory trumps all 72 .

e. LTE family of networks vs WiMAX evolution • Should ask: Wi-Fi vs LTE + WiMAX • Value of TV white spaces: Secondary access • Open 3 GHz – 10 GHz to all – License exempt on secondary access basis 73 .Outrageous ideas • 5 GHz spectrum better than 700 MHz • 2020: LTE* >80%. WiMAX* <15% – * i.

broughturner.com .com http://blogs.Thank you ! Brough Turner broughturner@gmail.