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The Human Circulatory System

series of blood vessels and the blood that flows through them. – .Introduction  Humans and other vertebrates have a closed circulatory system: – This means that circulating blood is pumped through a system of vessels This system consists of the heart (pump).

The Heart  Located near the center of your chest Hollow structure Composed almost entirely of muscle    About the size of your clenched fist .

The Heart  Enclosed in a protective sac called the pericardium .

 . Contractions of the myocardium pump blood through the circulatory system.The Heart  In the walls of the heart. two layers of tissue form a sandwich around a thick layer of muscle called the myocardium.

The Heart  The heart contracts about 72 times per minute Pumps about 70mL of blood with each contraction.  .

 .The Heart  The right and left sides of the heart are separated by a septum. The septum prevents the mixing of oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood. or wall.

  . The upper chamber (receives blood) is the atrium. The lower chamber (pumps blood out of heart) is the ventricle.The Heart  On each side of the septum are two chambers.

The Heart  The heart has a total of 4 chambers: 2 atriums 2 ventricles   .

blood moves back toward the heart into the left atrium to the left ventricle and then passes into the aorta to go to the rest of the body  . From the lungs.Pathway of Blood  Deoxygenated blood passes from the right atrium into the right ventricle and then goes to the lungs.

Blood Vessels  As blood moves through the circulatory system it moves through 3 types of blood vessels: Arteries Capillaries Veins    .

Arteries   Large vessels Carry blood from heart to tissues of body Carry oxygen rich blood. with the exception of pulmonary arteries.   . Thick walls-need to withstand pressure produced when heart pushes blood into them.

Important for bringing nutrients and oxygen to tissues and absorbing CO2 and other waste products.Capillaries  Smallest blood vessels  Walls are only one cell thick and very narrow.  .

blood is forced through veins. Many found near skeletal muscles. Largest veins contain one way valves that keep blood flowing toward heart.   . When muscles contract.Veins  Once blood has passed through the capillary systems it must be returned to the heart.   Done by veins Walls contains connective tissue and smooth muscle.

Blood   Composed of plasma and blood cells Types of Cells are: – – – Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Platelets .

Blood  Red Blood Cells – – – – – – Most numerous type Transport oxygen Get color from hemoglobin Disk shaped Made in red bone marrow Circulate for 120 days .

fight parasites. and attack bacteria Number of WBC’s increases when body is fighting Lymphocytes produce antibodies which fight pathogens and remember them – – .Blood  White Blood Cells – Guard against infection.

THANKS Prepared By: Harmeet Kour Roll No:.C  .144/MED/2013-14  Section:.