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Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources (PE 413


Shale Gas
Hydraulic Fracturing
Dr Bijaya K Behera
Professor School of Petroleum Technology


Dhruva Dhankher Ayush Nitin Chaudhary Harsh Vora Sunil Kumar Gaurav Tomar Chanchal Chakrachhatri

Sharanya Gantla Ayush Mishra Swetha Gokavarapu Yash Malani Yashaswini Nallaparaju Mayank Jhunjhunwala Abbasi Soni Mayank Sharma

B. Tech Petroleum Engineering, 2009 Batch Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, Gandhinagar

often called “pad”.  Fluid that does not contain any propping agent. is injected to create a fracture that grows up. and creates a fracture that is wide enough to accept a propping agent.  Once the formation “breaks-down”. 3 . a crack or fracture is formed. The purpose of the propping agent is to “prop open” the fracture once the pumping operation ceases. and the injected fluid begins moving down the fracture.What is Hydraulic Fracturing?  Hydraulic fracturing is the process of pumping a fluid into a wellbore at an injection rate that is too high for the formation to accept in a radial flow pattern that exceeds the breakdown pressure of the formation that is open to the wellbore. out and down.

Poisson’s ratio 6. Saturation 4 . log analysis 2. core analysis 3. Permeability 2.Rock formation properties To begin with. we first of all need to find out the geophysical and geo-mechanical properties of the target formation by : 1. Porosity 3. Young’s modulus 4. Bulk modulus 5. well testing The important properties that we need to Know are : 1.

Hydraulic Fracturing Process Steps of Hydraulic Fracturing Process 5 .

FRACTURE LENGTH  Fracture length defines the extension of the fracture in the formation.  The fracture length orientation depends on the poisons ratio of the formation.  Calculation of fracture length  2-D Models  3-D Models 6 .  If the formation is bounded by other formations having higher poisons ratio then the fracture length would be much longer than the fracture width.

Xf = Productive fracture half length. 1961 and Nordgren. pc = Closure pressure. hf = Fracture height. Geertsma and de Klerk. The closure stress at a given depth is the sum of overburden pressure and pore pressure. E’= Plane strain modulus. PKN: Perkins&Kern. Rf = Radial fracture radius Closure Stress/pressure: Closure stress/pressure is the pressure at which the fracture effectively closes without proppant in place. Vi = Volume of fluid injected. 1969 . 1955. bN = Nolte method intercept.FRACTURE LENGTH Where. 1972Model (PKN) without leakoff test 7 • KGD: Khristianovic and Zheltov.

• Dimensionless fracture conductivity is a key design parameter in well stimulation that compares the capacity of the fracture to transmit fluids down the fracture and into the wellbore with the ability of the formation to deliver fluid into the fracture. and w is the fracture width kF is the formation permeability 8 .FRACTURE CONDUCTIVITY • Fracture conductivity is the product of fracture permeability and propped fracture width left after the fracture has closed. • CfD=kfw/kFxf xf is the fracture half-length. kf is the fracture permeability.

TYPES OF FRACTURING FLUIDS Water based fluids Oil based Alcohol Based Emulsion Fracturing Fluid Foam Based fluid New Generation Fracturing Fluid Low viscosity fluid or uncross linked polymers & slick water Cross linked fracturing fluids Visco elastic surfactant based Visco elastic surfactant foam Borate cross linked 9 Metallic ion cross linked Delayed cross linked .

resulting from tying together various polymer molecules into a structure through metal-chelate cross linkers is an advancement of water based fluids. and high pump rates creating highly complex fractures in gas reservoirs. readily available. miscibility with water and compatibility with water sensitive formation • Drawbacks are inherent danger to person breathing alcohol fumes and danger of combustion 10 .TYPES OF FRACTURING FLUIDS Water Based Fluid • Economical. wt. easily viscosified and yields increased Hydrostatic head • Includes low viscosity “slick water” with low proppant conc. typically NaAlO2 • Requires a great deal of technical capability and quality control • Primary disadvantages are fire hazards and pumping friction Alcohol Based Fluids • Methanol and isopropanol provides low surface tension. • cross-linked fluid with increased mol. Oil Based Fluids • Mostly it is a reaction product of Aluminium Phosphate Ester and Base.

TYPES OF FRACTURING FLUIDS Emulsions Based Fluids • Highly viscous solutions with good transport properties and fluid loss control • Water external emulsion are easy to mix and pump and have tendency to achieve friction reduction with polymers • Oil external emulsions yields high friction pressure related to high oil viscosity and lack of friction reduction Foam Based Fluids • Simply a gas in liquid emulsion where gas bubbles provide high visco and excellent proppant transport capabilities • Minimises the amount of fluid placed on the formation and improves fracturing fluid recovery by inherent energy of gas • Applications are in shallow. low pressure wells and water sensitive formations New Generation Fluids • VES base fluid uses surfactants in combination with inorganic salts creating ordered structures which increases viscosity and elasticity • Extension of VES fluid tech is VES foams which can be formed with N2 or CO2 11 .

ADDITIVES USED IN FRACTURING FLUID Sr. Used to lower the surface tension. No. Used to kill bacteria in the mix water. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Additive Polymers Cross-linkers Biocides Buffers Surfactants Fluid-Loss additives Stabilizers Breakers Function Used to viscosify the fluid. Used to control the pH of the fracture fluid. Used to break the polymers and crosslink sites at low temperature. Used to keep the fluid viscous at high temperature. 12 . Used to minimize fluid leak-off into the formation. Used to change the viscous fluid to a pseudo-plastic fluid.

• Break back to a low viscosity fluid for clean up after the treatment. 13 . • Easy to remove from the formation. • Ability to carry the propping agent. • Minimum damage to the formation permeability. • Low pumping friction loss. • Compatible with the natural formation fluids.SELECTION OF FRACTURE FLUIDS The properties that any Fracturing fluid should possess: • Low leak-off rate.

rounded particles • Uniform size (narrow mesh distribution) • High degree of sphericity • High compressive strength • High degree of roundness • Consistent density • Stability at reservoir temperature 14 .PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AFFECTING PROPPANT PERFORMANCE The propping agent qualities that have consistently proven effective in achieving proppant packs of high permeability and good integrity are: • Small.

Sintered Bauxite 4. Sand 2. Ceramic Sand 3.TYPES OF PROPPANTS 1. Resin coated sand 5. High strength proppants 15 . Intermediate strength proppants 6. Light weight ceramic proppant 7.

Resin coated proppant) • Safety and environmental concerns 16 .. Foams to aid flow back in low-pressure reservoirs) • Surface pump pressure or pipe friction considerations • Cost • Compatibility with other materials (e.g.g.PROPPANT SELECTION CRITERIA • Compatibility with reservoir fluids and reservoir rock • Compatibility with reservoir pressure (e..

000psi) – High Strength Ceramics (<15.PROPPANT SELECTION CRITERIA The usual proppants used are listed below in accordance with the closure stresses: – Frac Sand (<6.000psi) – Resin-Coated Frac Sand (<8.000psi) ( this is illustrated in fig 2 as well ) 17 .000psi) – Intermediate Strength Ceramics (<10.


and γprop and γfluid are the specific gravity of the proppant and the fluid. respectively 19 . dprop is the average proppant particle diameter in in. μ is the fluidviscosity in cp.PROPPANT TRANSPORT • Modes of proppant transport – Simple settling • Governed by Stoke’s law Where. vfall is the settling rate in ft/s..

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES • Water Consumption • Sand and proppants • Ground water contamination • Toxic Chemicals and radioactive material • Waste disposal • Seismology and earthquakes IMPACTS REMEDIES 20 • Recycling the fluid • Isolating formation from fresh water aquifers • Underground injection treatment and discharge • Use of surface impoundments .