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Mathmatics, Statistics, Medicine, Biology, Test, T-Test, probability, research, study, design

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Heart rate (bpm) Mean ± SEM

n

In men - 73.34 ± 5.82 10

In women - 80.45 ± 6.13 10

The difference between means (80.45-73.34) =

7.11

:

a. the data from all subjects in a group are

Why should we test significance?

We test SAMPLE to draw conclusions about

POPULATION

we be certain that POPULATIONS (from which the

samples were drawn) are also different?

is spurious?

The above questions can be answered by STAT

TEST.

Stat test

Tests whether two groups are statistically

different from each other

Not just apparently different

statistics to say

these two are truly

different. Do you?

But statistics

does help us

determine

which group

of trees is

taller

statistics to say

these two are truly

different. Do you?

How does a Stat test work?

Stat test analyses the data (numbers) submitted

(by the researcher) to calculate the chances of

obtaining a difference when there is none i.e.

probability of obtaining a spurious difference.

(b) whether the type of data is correct or wrong

(c) the magnitude of the difference

(d) whether the difference will be practically useful

difference between two groups is REAL or FALSE

What does a Stat test infer?

obtaining a false difference is less than 5%

(1 in 20) [p<0.01 – 1 in 100; p<0.001 – 1

in 1000]

conclude that the difference between

groups is TRUE

be true and 100% certainty is impossible.

How to test statistical significance?

Set alpha (level of significance)

Identify the variables to be analysed

Identify the groups to be compared

Choose a test

Find out the P value

Interpret the P value

Calculate the CI of the difference

Calculate Power if required

Null hypothesis

Null hypothesis (statistical hypothesis) states that

there is no difference between groups compared.

states that there is a difference between groups.

e.g.

hypothesis)

Alpha / type 1 error / level of significance

hypothesis is rejected i.e. the difference

between groups is not due to chance.

Choosing a stat test

Choosing a stat test……….

data,

analysis,

study design,

distribution &

no. of groups

Choosing a stat test………

Parametric Non-parametric

Student’s t test Wilcoxon

paired t signed rank test

unpaired t rank sum test

correlation correlation

way Friedman

two - way

Chi square test

Kolomogorov-Smirnov test

Choosing a stat test……

Determine :

Aim of the study –

Parameter to be analysed -

Data type- [Continuous, Discrete, Rank, Score,

Binomial]

Analysis type- [Comparison of means, Quantify association,

Regression analysis]

No. of groups to be analysed -

No. of data sets to be analysed -

Distribution of data - [normal or non-normal]

Design - [paired or unpaired]

suitable test using the table given.

Choosing a stat test……

3. Data type 2. Distribution of data 3. Analysis type (goal)

4. No. of groups 5. Design Table downloaded from

www.graphpad.com

Table downloaded from

www.graphpad.com

Calculating test statistic

variability of groups

XT - XC

e.g. t test t

= SE(XT - XC)

Determining P

Find out the degrees of freedom (df)

Use t and df to find out P using a

formula or ‘critical values table’

How to interpret P?

If P < alpha (0.05), the difference is statistically

significant

statistically significant / the difference could

not be detected.

detected; repeat the study with more ‘n’

If power ≥ 80 % - The difference between

groups is not statistically significant.

Degrees of Freedom

It denotes the number of samples that a

researcher has freedom to choose.

X + Y = 10 df = 1

X+ Y+Z = 15 df = 2

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