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Chapter 1

The Human Organism

Cells of the Peritoneum

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Anatomy and Physiology Say What?!


Anatomy : study of structures of body
Systemic - study of body by organ systems Regional - study of body by areas Surface - uses superficial structures to locate deeper structures

Physiology : study of processes and functions of body

Structural & Functional Organization


Six Levels of Organization
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Chemical Level Cell Level Tissue Level Organ Level Organ System Level Organism Level

Structural and Functional Organization


1. Chemical Level Atoms (p,n,e) combine to form molecules 2. Cell Level Molecules form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells 3. Tissue Level Similar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues

Structural and Functional Organization


1. Chemical Level Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules 2. Cell Level Molecules form organelles (nucleus,mitochondria, etc), which make up cells 3. Tissue Level Similar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues

Structural and Functional Organization


1. Chemical Level Atoms (colored balls) combine to form molecules 2. Cell Level Molecules form organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, which make up cells 3. Tissue Level Similar cells and surrounding materials make up tissues

Structural and Functional Organization


4. Organ Level Different tissues combine to form organs (urinary bladder) 5. Organ System Level Organs such as the urinary bladder and kidneys make up an organ system 6. Organism Level Organ systems make up an organism

Structural and Functional Organization


4. Organ Level Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary bladder 5. Organ System Level Organs (urinary bladder & kidneys) make up organ system 6. Organism Level Organ systems make up an organism

Structural and Functional Organization


4. Organ Level Different tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary bladder 5. Organ System Level Organs such as the urinary bladder and kidneys make up an organ system 6. Organism Level Organ systems make up an organism

Organ systems of the human body and their associated organs

Fig. 1.3a

Organ systems of the human body and their associated organs

Fig. 1.3b

Characteristics of Life
1. Organization: all parts of organism interact to 2. 3.
perform specific functions Metabolism: chemical & physical changes taking place in organism Responsiveness: adjustments that maintain internal environment Growth: increase in size of all/part of organism
through time

4. 5. Development: changes organism undergoes


organisms

6. Reproduction: formation of new cells or new

Homeostasis
Existence and maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment
set point: ideal normal value (body temp)
normal range: fluctuation around set point

Homeostasis
maintained by neg & pos feedback mechanisms
Negative feedback turns off the original stimulus
Positive feedback enhances and upregulates the initial stimulus (often harmful to the body)

http://

glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter46/positive_and_negative_feedback.html

http://highered.m cgrawhill.com/sites/007 2495855/student _view0/chapter20 /animation__posit ive_and_negative _feedback__quiz _1_.html

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072943696/student_view0/chapter2/animation__feedback_inh

Terminology and Body Plane


Body Positions
Anatomical position
human standing erect face directed forward arms hanging to sides palms facing forward (supine)

If laying down..
Supine palms face up Prone palms face down

Terminology and Body Plane


Directional terms
Always refer to anatomical position
Right Left Superior Inferior Cephalic Caudal Anterior Posterior Ventral Dorsal Proximal Distal Lateral Medial Superficial Deep

Body Parts & Regions

Fig. 1.11

Body Parts & Regions

Fig. 1.12

Body Planes
Sagittal plane: divides body into left and right Transverse plane: divides body into superior and inferior Frontal (coronal) plane: divides body into anterior and posterior

Fig. 1.13

Organ Planes
Longitudinal section: along its long axis Cross (transverse) section: right angle to long axis Oblique section: across long axis at an angle other than a right angle

Fig. 1.14

Body Cavities
Thoracic cavity: bounded by ribs and diaphragm Abdominal cavity: bounded by diaphragm and abdominal muscles Pelvic cavity: surrounded by pelvic bones

Fig. 1.15

Serous Membranes
Parietal membrane: lines wall of cavity Visceral membrane: is in contact with internal organs Serous fluid: secreted by serous membrane and protects organs against friction

Serous Membranes
Pericardial cavity: surrounds the heart

Pleural cavities: surround the lungs

Serous Membranes
Peritoneal cavity: surrounds certain abdominal and pelvic organs
Mesenteries hold abdominal organs in place & provide a passageway for blood vessels, nerves to organs Retroperitoneal organs located behind parietal peritoneum
Kidneys, adrenals, pancreas, bladder, part of intestine