Material sample and testing for highway construction Types of material in bitumen Types of pavement layer

Types of aggregates in road layer
Prevention of defect Factors affecting of pavement Cost of material

CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering

LIST OF SUBTOPIC

INTRODUCTION
A highway is any public road or other public way on land. Major highways are often named and numbered by the governments that typically develop and maintain them. Maintaining a highway is important too, as the quality of the road and the efficiency for the user to use the road must well guarantee. The safety of user in highway must be well secure, this is because safeness on a high speed road will save lives. Therefore, maintaining a highway is very important. It ensure the condition of highway is in good condition and plays a role in saving lives too.

CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering

INTRODUCTION

HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND TESTS

Highway Materials & Tests Soil Test - Soil Classification Test - Wet & Dry sieve analysis test - Compaction Test - CBR test Aggregate Test Bituminous Test Conclusion The End

SOIL TEST

BITUMINOUS TEST
-PENETRATION TEST -DUCTLITY TEST -BINDER CONTANT TEST -VISCOSITY TEST -FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST -SOFTNING POINT TEST -LOSS ON HEATING TEST -WATER CONTENT TEST -SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST -SOLUBILITY TEST -FLOAT TEST

AGGREGATE TEST

- SOIL CLASSIFICATION TEST - FIELD DENSITY TEST

-LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST -CRUSHING TEST -IMPACT TEST -SHAPE TEST -SOUNDNESS TEST -SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST -WATER ABSORPTION TEST -STRIPPING VALUE TEST

CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering

HIGHWAY MATERIAL AND TESTS

CBR test Aggregate Test Bituminous Test Conclusion The End Specific Gravity Of Soil . giving the maximum dry density at optimum moisture content.To determine the particle size distribution in soil from the coarse sand size down to clay size. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering HIGHWAY MATERIAL AND TESTS .To determine the mass of dry soil per cubic metre when the soil is compacted over a range of moisture contents.Proctor Test . Highway Materials & Tests Soil Tests .SOIL CALSSIFICATION TEST SOIL TEST In-situ Moisture Content .Obtained by measuring the relationship between force and penetration when a cylindrical plunger is made to penetrate the soil at a standard rate.To determine the moisture content of soil as percentage of its dry mass.Specific gravity of soil measures the mass of soil per unit volume.Soil Classification Test . California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test .Wet & Dry sieve analysis test . Compaction Test . Particle Size Distribution (By Wet Sieving & Pipette Method) .Compaction Test . CEGB 112 B.

Wet & Dry sieve analysis test .SOIL CLASSIFICATION TEST Wet & Dry Sieve Apparatus Highway Materials & Tests Soil Tests . Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering HIGHWAY MATERIAL AND TESTS .CBR test Aggregate Test Bituminous Test Conclusion The End CEGB 112 B.Compaction Test .Soil Classification Test .

Compaction Test . Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering HIGHWAY MATERIAL AND TESTS .Wet & Dry sieve analysis test .Soil Classification Test .CBR test Aggregate Test Bituminous Test Conclusion The End CEGB 112 B.SOIL CLASSIFICATION TEST Compaction Test Highway Materials & Tests Soil Test .

Soil Classification Test .CBR test Aggregate Test Bituminous Test Conclusion The End CEGB 112 B.Wet & Dry sieve analysis test . Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering HIGHWAY MATERIAL AND TESTS .SOIL CLASSIFICATION TEST California Bearing Ratio (CBR) TEST Highway Materials & Tests Soil Tests .Compaction Test .

Soil Classification Test .Wet & Dry sieve analysis test . Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering HIGHWAY MATERIAL AND TESTS .CBR test Aggregate Test Bituminous Test Conclusion The End • CRUSHING TEST • IMPACT TEST • SHAPE TEST • SOUNDNESS TEST • SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST • WATER ABSORPTION TEST • STRIPPING VALUE TEST CEGB 112 B.Compaction Test .AGGREGATE TEST • LOS ANGLE ABRASION TEST Highway Materials & Tests Soil Tests .

Compaction Test .BITUMINOUS TEST • PENETRATION TEST • DUCTLITY TEST Highway Materials & Tests Soil Tests .CBR test Aggregate Test Bituminous Test Conclusion The End • BINDER CONTENT TEST • VISCOSITY TEST • FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST • SOFTNING POINT TEST • LOSS ON HEATING TEST • WATER CONTENT TEST • SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST • SOLUBILITY TEST • FLOAT TEST CEGB 112 B.Soil Classification Test . Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering HIGHWAY MATERIAL AND TESTS .Wet & Dry sieve analysis test .

highway designers and contractors are faced with materials having different properties and insitu characteristics. major highway is likely to encounter a large variety of geological materials with different engineering properties. Technical methods are available for achieving this objective.Wet & Dry sieve analysis test . The input from engineering geology in the construction process is an important element in achieving the best use of materials. types of design and ways of handling. requiring different methods of investigation. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering HIGHWAY MATERIAL AND TESTS .Highway Materials & Tests Soil Tests . capping and slope stability.CBR test Aggregate Test Bituminous Test Conclusion The End  To conclude. particularly for applications in general fills.Compaction Test .Soil Classification Test . CEGB 112 B. Therefore.  They are also required to maximize the use of these materials.

including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs.Pavement Materials : Bitumen Bitumen is A sticky. where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete. Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products. Bitumen / Asphalts CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF MATERIAL IN BITUMEN . The primary use of asphalt or bitumen is in road construction. black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

adhesive property.  Asphalt : Asphalt is a mixture of aggregates both fine (sand and filler) and coarse (stone) and a bituminous binder.  Fluxed bitumen : Fluxed bitumens are those bitumen which are prepared by the addition of relatively non volatile oils to reduce the viscosity of the binder. It typically contains approximately 4-7% of bitumen. elasticity or viscosity have been modified by the use of one or combined chemical agents.Types Of Bitumen  Modified Bitumen : Modified Bituminous binder are those whose properties such as cohesive strength. Alsphalt is primarily used in road construction and its properties depend upon the type.  Cutback Bitumen : Cut-back bitumens are those which are prepared with the addition of a volatile to reduce the thickness of the binder. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF MATERIAL IN BITUMEN . all of which can be adjusted to provide the required properties for the desired application. size and amount of aggregate used in the mixture. CEGB 112 B.

5.There are a number of tests to assess the properties of bituminous materials. 6. 1. 7. 9. 3. TESTS ON BITUMEN Penetration test Ductility test Softening point test Specific gravity test Viscosity test Flash and Fire point test Float test Water content test Loss on heating test CEGB 112 B. The following tests are usually conducted to evaluate different properties of bituminous materials. 2. 4. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF MATERIAL IN BITUMEN . 8.

CEGB 112 B. It is used as an indication of the temperature at which bitumen has a particular viscosity – or more simply.A measurement of the temperature at which a sample of bitumen held in a ring in a water bath allows a steel ball of specified weight to fall to a point at a specified distance below it. the temperature at which it softens. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF MATERIAL IN BITUMEN .It measures the hardness or softness of bitumen by measuring the depth in tenths of a millimeter to which a standard loaded needle will penetrate vertically in 5 seconds  Softening Point .TESTS ON BITUMEN  Penetration Test .

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF MATERIAL IN BITUMEN . safe. Standard asphalt roads have the lowest noise levels of all traditional road surfaces and the more recent development of porous and silent asphalts have reduced noise levels even further. helping to prevent accidents by alleviating a source of stress that contributes to driver fatigue. CEGB 112 B. providing a properly maintained.BENEFITS OF ASPHALT ROADS  Noise reduction Use of asphalt road surfaces can significantly reduce noise both inside and outside the car. This is very important for general road maintenance in order to reduce the occurance of pot holes and to extend the lifetime of the road structure.  Easy maintenance reduces traffic disruption The properties of asphalt roads means that they can be easily opened and quickly reinstated almost immediately. smooth road surface for vehicles.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF MATERIAL IN BITUMEN . CEGB 112 B.BENEFITS OF ASPHALT ROADS  Surface water dispersal New asphalt technology ensures rapid dispersal and drainage of surface water. improving visibility for the driver in wet conditions and increase the visibility of road markings. reducing water spray and therefore.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF PAVEMENT .TYPES OF PAVEMENT FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT RIGID PAVEMENT CEGB 112 B.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF PAVEMENT . usually asphalt. CEGB 112 B. Flexible.FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT Are those pavements which reflect the deformation of subgrade and the subsequent layers to the surface. is laid with no reinforcement or with a specialized fabric reinforcement that permits limited flow or repositioning of the roadbed under ground changes.

CEGB 112 B. They are usually constructed with dense graded asphalt concrete(AC) Binder course : generally consists of aggregates having less asphalt and doesn't require quality as high as the surface course. so replacing a part of the surface course by the binder course results in more economical design. improve drainage. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF PAVEMENT . and reduce the intrusion of fines from the sub-grade in the pavement structure Sub-Base course :course is the layer of material beneath the Subgrade : is a layer of natural soil prepared to receive the stresses from the layers above.TYPICAL LAYER OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT Surface Course : Surface course is the layer directly in contact with traffic loads and generally contains superior quality materials. Base course :is the layer of material immediately beneath the surface of binder course and it provides additional load distribution and contributes to the sub-surface drainage base course and the primary functions are to provide structural support.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF PAVEMENT . CEGB 112 B. rigid pavements are placed either directly on the prepared sub-grade or on a single layer of granular or stabilized material .RIGID PAVEMENT Rigid pavements have sufficient flexural strength to transmit the wheel load stresses to a wider area below. Compared to flexible pavement.

TYPICAL LAYER OF RIGID PAVEMENT Surface course : This is the top layer. which consists of the PCC slab. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF PAVEMENT . A subbase is not always needed and therefore may often be omitted. Base course : This is the layer directly below the PCC layer and generally consists of aggregate or stabilized subgrade. CEGB 112 B. Sub base course : This is the layer (or layers) under the base layer.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF PAVEMENT .DESIGN OF THE ROAD Airport Road City Road Distribution of pressure under single.wheel loads CEGB 112 B.

RURAL ROAD CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF PAVEMENT .

crushed stone. slag. Consists of aggregates •Aggregate also was one of materials used in sub-base road layer CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF AGGREGATES . gravel. recycled concrete and geosynthetic Consists of aggregates aggregates. including sand.TYPES OF AGGREGATES What is Aggregates? Construction aggregate or aggregate is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction.

or crushed stone that. are an essential ingredient in concrete. Coarse aggregates CEGB 112 B. Aggregates. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF AGGREGATES . are divided into two distinct categories : 1. which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete.Aggregates are inert granular materials such as sand. Fine Aggregates 2. gravel. along with water and portland cement.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF AGGREGATES . CEGB 112 B. Fine Aggregates Natural sand : fine aggregates resulting from the natural disintegration of rocks and which has been deposited by streams of glacial agencies Crushed stone sand: Fine aggregate produced by crushing of hard stone Crushed gravel sand: Fine aggregate produced by crushing of natural gravel.1.

Coarse aggregates 70-120 mm. 8-11 mm and 11-16 mm 20-70 mm. 150-300 mm (quarry stone): CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF AGGREGATES .0-2 mm. 0-5mm (granite sand) 2-5 mm 3-10 mm 5-10 mm 5-20 mm 10-20 mm 20-40 mm 5-8 mm. 120-150 mm. 40-70 mm: 2.

bricks.Gravel aggregates Secondary Limestone aggregates aggregates • Scabbled stone. slag or by special sedimentary rock and asphalt. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering TYPES OF AGGREGATES . СаСО3).rounded construction waste crushing of smelter crushing of pebbles usually of . from crushing product of the are obtained by • Gravel . which is treatment of firetype of aggregate aggregates are as liquid slag melt composed mainly is made with the follows: 3-10 mm. This Fractions of gravel limestone. river or sea origin. carbonate other types of 20-40 mm.Secondary Slag Aggregates Limestone regular natural or aggregate comes Slag aggregates aggregates are a crushed. CEGB 112 B. 5-40 mm. aggregates).concrete. aggregates.of calcite (calcium (molten slag same equipment as 20 mm. 5.

CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering PREVENTION OF DEFECT .INTRODUCTION Defects is very annoying when comes to road but it cannot be not treated. As it will lead to damages of vehicles and even harmful to road users.

Gravel aggregates  CEGB 112 B.TYPE OF ROCKS THAT USE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION Basalt (extrusive volcanic rock) •are often used for roads and pavements. Limestone aggregates •a product of the crushing of sedimentary rock. Granite aggregates •crushed hard rock of granular structure. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering PREVENTION OF DEFECT .

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering PREVENTION OF DEFECT .DEFECTS IN BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS Cracking Deformation Surface texture deficiencies Potholes  CEGB 112 B.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering PREVENTION OF DEFECT .  Inadequate pavement thickness. CEGB 112 B.CRACKING   Crocodile Cracks Possible cause:  Saturated base or subgrade.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering PREVENTION OF DEFECT .DEFORMATION Depression Possible cause: •poorly compacted •subgrade or embankment materials  CEGB 112 B.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering PREVENTION OF DEFECT .SURFACE TEXTURE DEFICIENCIES Flushing Possible cause: Penetration of aggregate into base (low strength base)  CEGB 112 B.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering PREVENTION OF DEFECT .POTHOLES   Possible causes Moisture entry to base course through a cracked pavement surface. CEGB 112 B.

PAVEMENT Road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic. such as a road or walkway. but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete. CEGB 112 B. gravel road surfaces. cobblestone and granite setts were extensively used. Road surfaces are frequently marked to guide traffic. In the past. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering PREVENTION OF DEFECT .

PAVEMENT FUNCTIONS Provide A reasonably smooth riding surface Provide adequate surface friction (skid resistance) Protect the subgrade  CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering FACTORS AFFECTING OF PAVEMENT .

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering FACTORS AFFECTING OF PAVEMENT .  CEGB 112 B. Moisture can enter the pavement structure through cracks and holes in the surface. configuration and the number of load repetitions by heavy vehicles.Weaken the support strength of natural gravel materials.FACTORS AFFECTING PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE Traffic.The performance of pavements is mostly influenced by the loading magnitude. Moisture(Water). especially the subgrade.

improper moisture conditions during construction. the pavement will flex excessively which ultimately causes the pavement to fail. If the subgrade is too weak to support the wheel loads.  Construction quality-: Failure to obtain proper compaction. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering FACTORS AFFECTING OF PAVEMENT . CEGB 112 B. and accurate layer thickness (after compaction) all directly affect the performance of a pavement. Subgrade-The subgrade is the underlying soil that supports the applied wheel loads. quality of materials.

CEGB 112 B. highway systems and all of their components can be maintained to their original. as-built condition. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering FACTORS AFFECTING OF PAVEMENT .HIGHWAY MAINTAINANCE repair of functional pavement defects extend the functional and structural service life of the pavement maintain road safety and signage keep road reserve in acceptable condition  *Through routine maintenance practices.

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering COST OF MATERIAL .ROAD STRUCTURE CEGB 112 B.

29-RM 2629. cold asphalt colour black •Stone Matic Asphalt Price : RM 3. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering COST OF MATERIAL .18 1 ton .20 100 tons type : natural bitumen CEGB 112 B.COST IN EACH LAYER SURFACE LAYERS Cold rolled asphalt Price : RM 996. type : Roadphalt .

Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering COST OF MATERIAL .RM 1879.41 2000 metric tons. brand name : Petroleum Asphalt CEGB 112 B.90 105 metric tons .BINDER COARSE Crushed Aggregate Rock Price : RM 96.75. type gravel and crush stone Bitumen Price : RM 1606.

7 15 tons.RM 642. 0-0. concrete sand Price : RM 64. 5.1mm CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering COST OF MATERIAL .67 Natural Sand Price : RM 160. type bounded silica sand.BASE ( ASPHALT AND ROAD ) Granite Aggregate 20mm construction sand.27-RM160.67.5mm.

SUB BASE Crush Rock Price : RM 96.76 1 Set : 250 set / sets per month ( stock ) CEGB 112 B. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering COST OF MATERIAL .50 – RM 27384.41 30/metric type gravel and crushed stone Slag Crushed Price : RM 16432.

71 1 kilogram CEGB 112 B.81-RM 427.25 20Metric tons Asphalt cement white cement Price : RM 7.49 – RM 7. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering COST OF MATERIAL .SUB GRADE Portland Cement Colour : white Price : RM 410.

As a result. soils condition must be thoroughly investigated prior to design. Soil testing is an extremely important in order contexts. a toll is being charged. This study tries to identify the basic concepts that are suitable to be implemented in highway construction projects including Malaysia. Highways are available for public usage although in certain places. The construction of highway depends on the geological structure of a certain area which may be varied from one to another. All those structures need a strong layer of soil to make sure the structure are strong and stable. different materials are used for highway construction in urban area and suburban area.Civil engineering works such as the construction of a highway. It can be extremely important that it varies. even profoundly within one site. Many types of road exist around the world which can be used for public motorized vehicles. Eng (Hons) Civil Engineering CONCLUSION . The construction of highway is to connect people from one place to another through land. To avoid failure of structures. a proper analysis is important. including the use of soil as a source of construction materials. building structure and other structures have a strong relationship with soil. CEGB 112 B. For instance.

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