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Staff Selection Commission Combined Graduate Level [Tier-1]
Subject : English Language and Comprehension Chapter : Parts of Speech Part-3
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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
The Conjunction:A conjunction is a word that is used for joining two words or groups of words. Note: Conjunctions must be distinguished from relative ronoun, relative adverb and prepositions that are also connecting words.

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Kinds of Conjunctions:Conjunctions are of two kinds:

Co-ordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunction

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Kinds of Conjunctions:Conjunctions are of two kinds:

Co-ordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunction

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Co-ordinating Conjunctions:A co-ordinating conjunction joins together words or groups of words of equal rank. Co-ordinating Conjunctions are four kinds: Cumulative or copulative conjunction Adversative conjunction Disjunctive or alternative conjunction Illative conjunction.
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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Cumulative or Copulative Conjunction:A cumulative conjunction joins two statements of facts. Example: a.He came to me and asked for alms. Explanation In the first sentence the conjunction and joins two statements. He came to me, (he) asked for alms. It is called cumulative conjunction.

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Adversative Conjunction :Adversative conjunction expresses opposition or contrast between two statements. Example: a. He was rich but not contented. Explanation In the first sentence the conjunction but shows contrast. It is an adversative conjunction.
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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Disjunctive or Alternative Conjunction:Disjunctive or alternative conjunction expresses a choice between two alternatives. Example: a.He must participate or he will be fined. Explanation Or, either…or, neither…nor are alternative conjunctions because they indicate alternative or choice between two things.
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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Illative Conjunction:Illative conjunction expresses an inference. Example: a) He will be rewarded, for he is trustworthy. Explanation For and so indicate inference or conclusion; so they are illative conjunctions.

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Subordinating Conjunctions:A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning. Example: 1.I shall help you if you need my help. Explanation The conjunction if joins the principal clause and the subordinate clause. It joins two groups of words of unequal rank where one group of words depends on another group of words for its complete meaning.
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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Kinds of Subordinating Conjunctions:Subordinating conjunction of time. Subordinating conjunction of place. Subordinating conjunction of reason. Subordinating conjunction of purpose. Subordinating conjunction of result or consequence. Subordinating conjunction of condition. Subordinating conjunction of comparison. Subordinating conjunction of concession.
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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Voice (Active and Passive):Voice is that branch of grammar which studies the form that the verb takes in a sentence to determine the status of the subject and the object. Types Active Voice Passive Voice

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Active Voice:A verb is said to be in the Active Voice when its subject acts or when the emphasis is on the doer or the subject. The active voice is so called because the person or thing denoted by the subject acts. Example Mohan sang a song. Here, the subject Mohan is acting.

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Passive Voice :A verb is in the Passive Voice when the subject is being acted upon or when the emphasis is on the object or the work done. The passive voice is so called because the person or thing denoted by the subject that is not active but passive, and suffers or receives some action. Example A song was sung by Mohan. Here, the subject is being acted upon.

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Present Tense :Present Indefinite : Assertive sentence Here, we need to change the first form of the verb into the third form and add is/am/are before it, depending on the number and person of the subject in the active voice. Active: S + V,(s, es) + O Passive: O + is/ am/ are + V, + by + S

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Present Tense:Present Continuous: Assertive sentences To get the passive voice, the verb is used in its third form and being is inserted between is/am/are and the verb. Active- S + is/ am/ are + V1 ing + O Passive- O+ is/ am/ are + being + V3 + by + S

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Present Tense:Present PerfectHere, been is put between has/have and verb (third form) in a passive voice sentence. Active- S + has/ have + V3 + O Passive- O + has/ have + been + V, + by + S

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Past Tense:Past Indefinite Active- S + V2 + O Passive- O + was/ were +V3+ by + S

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Past Tense:Past Continuous

Active- S + was/ were + V1ing + O Passive- O + was/ were + being + V3 + by + S

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Past Tense:Past Perfect Active- S + had + V3 + by + S Passive- O + had + been + V3+ by +S

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Future Tense:Future Indefinite : Assertive sentence For transforming an active voice sentence under this tense into passive voice, the verb is used in its third form and be is inserted between will and the verb. Active- S + will/ shall + V1 + O Passive- O + will/ shall + be + V3 + by + S

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English Language and Comprehension Parts of Speech/Sentence
Future Tense:Future Perfect:

In the passive voice, under this tense been is inserted between have and the verb.
Active: S + will/ shall + have + V3 + O Passive: O + will/ shall + have + been + V3 + by + S

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