PCI RS/6000 Start up Process Overview

Power On POST Locate OS Bootstrap Image
Find AIX Boot Image Load AIX Boot Image RAMDISK created Configuration Manager Phase 1

Normal IPL

AIX Startup on itanium- based System
IBM POWER processor Intel Itanium – based processor ROS

Hardware Initialization Low level configuration Load boot Image


SMS / bootlist

Setup EFI Boot Manager


•EFI system partition boot.efi •volume partition BLV

AIX initialization

User Applications Boot Process NIM Install Process

Alog program
/var/adm/ras/bootlog /var/adm/ras/Bosmenus.log Use alog command to view logs To view the boot log: #alog –o –t boot /var/adm/ras/nosinst.data . . /var/adm/ras/erriog

System Resource Controller
•Provides a single interface to control subsystems •Controls individual or groups of subsystems

Subsystem group










System Resource Controller Syntax
List SRC Status # Lssrc –g spooler Subsystem Qdaemon Writesrv Lpd Start a Subsystem # startsrc –s lpd 0513-059 The lpd Subsystem has been started. Subsystem PID is 12472. Refresh a Subsystem # refresh –s lpd 0513-095 The request for subsystem refresh was completed successfully Stop a Sybsystem # stopsrc –s lpd 0513 -044 The lpd Subsystem was requested to stop. Group Spooler Spooler Spooler PID 8022 9558 Status active active inoperative

Device States
Predefined Database Undefined Supported Device rmdev -dl rmdev -dl Mkdev Or cfgmgr Customized Database rmdev -l Defined Available Not Usable Ready for Use

Self-Configuring Devices
2. Answer -CD – ROM -04 – C0-00 – 3,0 1.Who are you

4a) Load device driver 4b) Make /dev/cd0 entry ODM Cd0 Defined 04-c0-00-3,0 3.cd0 defined Kernel /unix

Device Driver

Device Driver 22

ODM Cd0 Available 04-c0-00-3,0 5.Device available

# ls –l /dev/cd0 Br—r—r– root

System 22,



Location Code Format for SCSI Devices
AB – CD – EF – G , H AB – CD EF Identifies the bus and the adapter location Same as with non SCSI devices For a single SCSI bus -00 For a dual SCSI bus Internal bus - 00 External bus – 00 G – SCSI address ( SCSI ) of the device H = Logical unit number of the devices


Location Code Example for SCSI Device
SCSI Devices (Disk, Tape, CD-ROM)

System Unit 04-01-00-4,0 SCSI Adapter 7 6 04-01 0 SCSI Bus SCSI ID 4 04-01-00-6,0

Traditional UNIX Disk Storage
Partition 1

Partition 3

Partition 2

Free space

Free space PROBLEMS: •Fixed partitions •Expanding size of the partition •Limitation on size of a file system and a file •Contguous data requirement •Time and effort required in planning ahead

Benefits of the LVM
Logical volumes solve non – contiguous problems Logical volumes can span disks Dynamically increase logical volume size Logical volumes can be mirrored Hard disk easily added to a system Logical volumes can be relocated Volume group and logical volume statistics can be collected These task can be performed dynamically!

Physical Storage
Volume Group A PV1

Volume Group B






Physical Partitions 4MB is Default size 1016 max per PV


Physical Volume /dev/hdiskn

Volume Groups
rootvg datavg

PV1 PV2 New PVs: •Add to existing VGs •Create new VG Why create new volume groups? •Separate user data from operating system files •Disaster recovery •Data portability •Data integrity and security PV4 PV3

Volume Group Descriptor Area
One disk VG Two disk VG Three disk or more VG



Max size Normal VG-32 PVs Big Vg-128 PVs



Volume Group Limits
Normal Volume Groups (mkvg)
Number of disks: 1 2 4 8 16 32 Max.number of partitions/disk 32512 16257 8128 4046 2032 1016

Big Volume Groups (mkvg- B)
Number of disks: 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 Max.number of partitions/disk 130048 65024 32512 16256 8128 4064 2032 1016

Mkvg -t

Uses of Logical Volumes
A logical volume may contains one of the following , and only one at a time: Journaled or Enhanced journaled file system ( for example : / dev hd4 Paging space ( dev/hd6 ) Journal log ( /dev/hd8 ) Boot Logical Volume ( /dev/hd5 ) Nothing ( raw device )

What Is File System ?
      A File System is Method of storing data Hierarchy of directories Four types supported : Journaled File system ( jfs2 ) Enchanced Journaled File System ( jfs2 ) CD – ROM File System ( cdrfs ) Network File System ( nfs ) Different file systems are connected together via directories to form the veiw of files users see

Why Have File System ?
Can strategically place it on disk for improved performance Some tasks are performed more efficiently on a file system than on each directory within the file system, for example , back up, move, secure an entire file system Can limit disk usage of users by file system ( quotas ) Maintain integrity of the entire file system structure, for example ,if one file is corrupted ,the others are not affected Special security situations Organize data and programs into groups for ease of the file management and better performance

Standard File Systems in AIX
hd4 (root)

home sbin lib




dev tftpboot var mnt etc






Bin lib lpp share sbin

Spool adm tmp

Listing Logical Volume Information
List all Logical Volumes by Volume Group: # lsvg –l rootvg LVNAME Hd6 Hd5 Hd8 Hd4 Hd2 Hd9var Hd3 Hd1 1v00 Type paging boot jfslog jfs jfs jfs jfs jfs jfs2 Lps 64 1 1 2 156 1 3 1 2 PPs 64 1 1 2 156 1 3 1 2 Pvs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lv STATE Mount Point N/A N/A N/A / /Usr /var /tmp /home /home/john

open/syncd Closed/syncd open/syncd open/syncd open/syncd open/syncd open/syncd open/syncd open/syncd

Volume Groups
Volume Group



Physical Volume (PV) Volume Group (VG)

Hard disk Collection of related disks (PVs)

Hot Spare

1st copy of data1 LV

2nd copy of data1 LV

1st copy of data2 LV

2nd copy of data2 LV


Hot Spare

Hdisk() First Copy PP1 PP2 LP1 LP2 Lv00

Hdisk1 Second Copy PP1 PP2

Hdisk2 Third Copy PP1 PP2

Mirror Write Consistency
Read Request Copy 1

Copy 2

Copy 3

Forced Synhronization Synchronize the Read Partitions

Logical Volume Policies
Intra-physical volume allocation policy:






Ineer Edge Ineer Middle Center Outer Middle (Middle) Center Edge (Edge) Inter-physical volume allocation policy: •Maximum number of PVs to use •Range of PVs to use

Migrating Physical Partitions

I/O Busy Disk Less Busy Disk

Move Physical Partitions

# migratelp hd3/1 hdisk 1/109

Structure of a Journaled File System
Superblock inodes

Indirect Blocks Data Blocks • Superblock

1. File System size and identification 2. Free list, fragment size, nbpi • Inodes • Blocks 1. Data blocks –contain data 2. Indirect blocks –contain pointers to data blocks.

1. File size, ownership, permissions, times 2. Pointers to data blocks

Structure of an Inode
Permission no.of links type of file user ID group ID file size address of blocks time modified time accessed time changed access control info. Reserved other

•Contents of an inode

Inode for file 1

File System Fragmentation
No Fragmentation File size = 2000 bytes 4096 bytes 2000 bytes 2000 bytes

This free space cannot be used by another file Fragmentation Enabled File size = 2000 bytes Fragment size = 1024 bytes 2000 1024 bytes 1024 1024 1024

These free fragments can be used by other files

Variable Number of Inodes
With the default nbpi=4096 on inode will be created for every 4096 bytes of file system. File System 4096 4096 4096 128 bytes
1 2

File System Using the value nbpi=1024 an inode will be created for every 1024 bytes of file system. 128 bytes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4096 4096


Allocation Group Size
inodes 16 MB 16 MB 16 MB Disk blocks Disk blocks 16 MB agsize

Groupings of related inodes and disk blocks.


Groupings of related inodes and disk blocks.

64 MB 64 MB 64 MB

64 MB agsize

JFS vs.JFS2 File Systems
JFS Maximum File Size Architectural /Tested Maximum File Size Architectural /Tested Inode Size Number of inodes Fragments/ Block Size Online defragmentation Avaiable on itaum Avaiable on POWER 64 Gigabytes /64 Gigabytes 1 Terabyte / 1 Terabyte 128 Byters Fixed. Set at creation 512/4096 Yes No Yes, default JPS2 4 Petabytes / 1 Terabyte 4 Petabytes / 1 Terabyte 512 Bytes Dynamic 512/4096 Yes Yes Yes

Large File Enabled File Systems
File = 132 MD (1024 * 4 KB blocks)+ (1024 * 128 KB blocks)= 132MB 4MB
1 2 3 4 . 1023 1024



= 132MB

1025 1 Block 4 MB 1026 1027 . 1055 1056

32 Blocks 128 KB

File 132 MB

128 KB
1057 1058 1059 .

32 Blocks 128 KB

Journal Log
Write data 1 Fsync() 1) Inode changes to log 3 2) COMMIT to log 3) Update inode 4) Sync log 2

inodes Data block



No journaling of data blocks –only journals inode information (and indirect block information.)

Space Management
File system expand upon notice, not automatically To keep from running in to problems : Monitor file system growth Determine cause Control growing files Manage file system space usage Control user disk usage Defragment file system

Control Growing Files
/var/adm/wtmp /var/spool/*/* $HOME/smit.log $HOME/smit/script $HOME/websm.log $HOME/websm.script /etc/security/failedlogin /var/adm/sulog

The skulker command cleans up file system by removing unwanted or obsolete files Candidate files include ( can use file aging as criteria ): Those in /temp directory A.out file Core files Ed.hup files Skuler is normally invokes daily by the cron command as part of the root’s crontab file Modify the skulker shell script to suit local needs for the removal of files

   

What is Paging Space?
RAM – 256 MD

RAM Usage Operating System Database TCP/IP 8MB FREE

Current applications Total =248 MB RAM Usage Operating System 4KB Database 4KB TCP/IP Application

Paging Space

Paging Space Placement
•Only one paging space per disk •Use disks with the least activity •Paging spaces roughly the same size •Do not extend paging space to multiple PV’s •Use multiple disk controllers




AIX Product Offerings
AIX Expansion Pack Bonus Pack LPPs AIX Documentation AIX Toolbox for Linux

Packaging Definitions
LOO: bos Collection of Packages Complete Product

Package: bos.INed

Package: bos.adt

Collection of Filesets

Fileset: Bos.INed

Fileset: Bos.adt.lib

Fileset: Bos.adt.prof

Smallest Unit Specific Function

Fileset Naming
LPP Package Fileset Suffix

Message Convention: LPP.msg[.lang].package.fileset

Software Updates
5 . 1 . 0 . 0






Smit update_all

Software States
Applied: Install Fileset (Old Version) Applied fileset Commit or Reject Fileset (Old Version) Fileset (New Version)

Committed Install Committed Fileset

Why Backup?
•Data is very important: Expensive to recreate Can it be recreated? •Disaster recovery: Hardware failure Damage due to installation/repair Accidental deletion •Transfer of data between systems Reorganizing file systems •Defragmentation to improve performance •System image for installation •Checkpoint (befor/after upgrade) •Long term archive

Types of Backup
Three types of backup:

System Records image backup of the operating system rootvg Full Preserves all user data and configuration files Incremental Records changes since previous backups Must be used carefully Very quick

Backup Strategy
System backup

Full backup

Incremental backup

Incremental backup

AIX Print Subsystem : Advantages
      

Powerful and flexible printer drivers System management tools Limits fields and option validation Easy printer customization Single step print device and queue creation Support for dial-in administration Customizable spooling subsystem

System V Print Subsystem: Advantages
Compattability of interface programs Avilabilty of interface programs Security Support for forms Standard PostScript filters Long term strategy

Concepts of Queues
File 1 Queue1 File 1 File 2 File 2 File 3 Queue2 File 3 File 4 File 4 /dev/Ip1 /dev/Ip0 :

Printer Data Flow
# qprt -Pps [ -c ] file Ip Print Request Ipr enq Queue monitors qdaemon starts Backend ( piobe ) submits file to prienter /ev/Ip0d Virtual Printer Defination Print Request Spool Directory qpr t Copy of file ( if requested )

System Files Associated with Printing
/etc/qconfig /var/spool/* /var/spool/lpd/qdir/* /var/spool/qdaemon/* /var/spool/ipd/stat/* /var/spool/lpd/pio/@local queue configuration files spooling directories queue requests temporary enqueued files line printer status information Virtual printer directories

Queue Status

Printer is busy servicing other print requests QUEUE IS WAITING FOR THE PRINTER QUEUE IS DOWN AND NO JOBS WILL BE SERVICED FROM THIS QUEUE UNTIL IS BROUGHT UP THE QUEUE IS WAITING FOR OPERATOR INTERVENTION JOB IS QUEUED AND WAITING Everything is ready to receive a print request Print file is printing Problem with the queue – need to investiage further to determine cause