Assistant Professor
Department of Chemical Engineering
Seth Jai Parkash Mukund Lal Institute of
Engineering & Technology, Radaur.
Yamunanagar .(Haryana)
INDIA
Heat ,mass and momentum
transfer
Unit process can be classified into three fundamental
transfer processes.
Momentum transfer
Heat transfer
Mass transfer
dz
dc
D j
1
1
=
dz
dT
k q =
dz
du
t =
Analogies
General molecular transport equation:
All three of the molecular transport process of
momentum, mass and heat are characterized
by the same general type of equation.
sistance Re
force Driving
process transfer of Rate =
Analogies
Molecular diffusion equation for momentum:
=momentum transferd/s.m
2
/ is kinematic viscosity in m
2
/s
z is the distance in m
v
x
is momentum/m
3
where the momentum has the units of kg. m /s.
dz
v d x ) (
t =
Analogies
Molecular diffusion for heat conduction for
constant c
p
and
q/A is heat flux in W/m
2
is thermal diffusivity in m
2
/s
c
p
T is J/m
3
dz
T c d
A
q p ) (
o =
Analogies
Molecular diffusion equation for mass
transfer
j
AZ
is molar flux of component A due to molecular diffusion in
kg mol A/ s.m
2
D
AB
is the molecular diffusivity of molecules A in B in m
2
/s
C
A
is the concentration of A in kg mol/m
3
z is the distance o f diffusion in meters
dz
dC
D j
A
AB A =
Analogies
All three molecular transport equations are
identical. There is mathematical analogy
between these equation but the actual
physical mechanism occurring is totally
different .E.g. In the mass transport two
components are being transported by
relative motion .In heat transfer, molecules
are relatively stationary and transport is
taken by electrons. Transport of momentum
is occurred by several types of mechanism.
Analogies
All the fluxes are on the left hand side of
three equations. All fluxes have the same
units i.e. quantity transferred /per unit time
per unit area .
The transport properties /, and D
AB
have the
units of m
2
/s.All concentration are represented
as momentum/m
3
, j/m
3
, kgmol/m
3
.
Analogies
Since basic mechanism of heat, mass and
momentum transport is essentially same, it is
some times possible to directly relate heat
transfer coefficients, mass transfer coefficients
and friction factors by means of analogies.
Analogy involving momentum transfer is only
valid if there is no form drag, hence these are
limited to flow over flat plates and inside
conduits.
Analogies
Turbulent diffusion equation for momentum,
heat and mass transfer
( )
dz
dc
D j
dz
T c d
A
q
dz
v d
A
M AB AZ
p
t
z
x
t zx
) (
) (
) (
c
o o
t
+ =
+ =


.

\

+ =
Analogies
The most simple and crude analogy in
turbulent diffusion equations is that turbulent
eddies transport or eddies diffusivities are
same for all modes of transport.
m t t c o c = =
Momentum
eddy diffusivity
Thermal
eddy diffusivity
Mass
eddy diffusivity
Analogies
Another analogy probably the oldest is the
Reynolds Analogy. This relates fanning friction
factor for fluid flow to heat transfer.
Fanning friction factor can be defined as shear
stress at the surface divided by the product of
density times velocity head.
2 / 2 v
f
s
t
=
Fanning friction factor
Analogies
For momentum transfer
For fluid flow in a pipe, heat transfer equation from
fluid to wall can be written as
dz
dv
t ) ( c
t + =
dz
dt
t Cp
A
q
) ( o o + =
Analogies
After dividing the momentum transfer equation
with heat transfer equation and by assuming
thermal diffusivity and momentum diffusivity
negligible and equal eddy diffusivities we get a
equation
dv CpdT
A q
= )
/
(
t
Analogies
Integrating between the T=Ti and v=0 to
some point where T is the same as the
bulk T and assume that velocity at this
point is same as average velocity.
2 / 2
) ( /
0 ) (
/
t
t
av s
i
av i
s
f v
T T h A q
v T T Cp
A q
=
=
=
Analogies
This become Reynolds Analogy. It
postulates direct interaction
between the turbulent core of the
flow and the walls.
G c
h
v c
h f
p av p
= =
2
Analogies
Right hand side term in the Reynolds analogy is
the Stanton number. Stanton number is a
dimensionless group made up of other more
familiar groups. Reynolds analogy gives
reasonable values for gases where Prandtl
number is roughly one.
u
k D
Lu D
L k
Sc
Sh
St
G c
h
c
k
dG k
hd Nu
St
c c
M
p p
H
=


.

\



.

\


.

\

=

=
=


.

\


.

\


.

\

=

=
Re
Pr Re
Analogies
Nusslet number: It establishes the
relation between convective film coefficient
h, thermal conductivity of fluid k and length
parameter d of a physical system.
It is also interpreted as the ratio of
temperature gradient to an overall
reference temperature gradient.
Analogies
Reynold number: It is ratio of inertial
force to viscous forces in fluid motion. At
low Reynold numbers viscous effects
dominate and fluid motion is laminar. At
high Reynold numbers inertial effects
leads to turbulent flow.
N
Re
< 2100
N
Re
> 4000
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow
Analogies
Prandtl number: It is ratio of kinematic
viscosity to thermal diffusivity of a fluid. It
indicates the relative ability of the fluid to
diffuse momentum and internal energy by
molecular mechanism. Prandtl number is
connecting link between velocity field field
and the temperature field and its value
strongly influences relative growth of
velocity and thermal boundary layers.
Analogies
Schmidt number: It is the ratio of shear
component of diffusivity / to the
diffusivity of mass transfer. Values of
Schmidt number for gases range from
about 0.5 to 2. For liquids Schmidt
numbers range from about 100 to over
10000 for viscous liquids.
Analogies
Reynolds analogy breakdown if viscous
sub layer become important, because
eddy diffusivities diminish to zero and
molecular diffusivities becomes important.
Prandtl modified the Reynolds analogy by
writing regular diffusion equations for
viscous sub layer and Reynolds analogy
equation for turbulent core region.
Analogies
Viscous sub layer is the region where the
velocity is proportional to distance from the
wall. The second region called buffer layer
is the region of transition between the
viscous sub layer with practically no eddy
activity. Third region called turbulent core
has violent eddy activities
Boundary layer in pipe
Viscous sub layer
Buffer zone
Turbulent core
Viscous sub layer
Buffer layer
Turbulent core
y
+
V
+
D
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
l
e
s
s
v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
r
a
t
i
o
Dimensionless number
Analogies
If the laminar sub layer is included in Reynolds
analogy, the Prandtl analogy applies. Prandtl
analogy included the ratio of mean velocities in
laminar sub layer and core as well as the
Prandtl number for heat transfer. If the Prandtl
number is reduces to one it becomes Reynolds
analogy.
) 1 ( / 1
2 /
+
=
pr xm x
st
N u u
f
N
Analogies
Von korman modified the Prandtl analogy
by considering buffer layer in addition to
viscous sub layer and turbulent core.
Chilton and Colburn Jfactor analogy is
most successful and widely used analogy.
This analogy is based on correlations and
data rather than assumptions about
transport mechanism.
Analogies
Chilton Colburn jfactor analogy is simple
analogy. This analogy is valid for turbulent flow
in conduits with N
Re
> 10000, 0.7< N
Pr
> 160
and tubes where L/d > 60
M H
smooth
j j
f
= =
2
Thanks.