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Definition Role in Casting Types Pattern Allowances
Job, pattern , mould
Pattern is the replica of the final object to be made. The mold cavity is made with the help of pattern.
Role in Casting Steps in Making Sand Castings There are six basic steps in making sand castings: Patternmaking Core making Molding Melting and pouring Cleaning and ejecting .
Functions of Pattern 1. 5. A properly constructed pattern minimizes the overall cost of the castings. Runner. gates. and risers used for feeding molten metal in the mold cavity may form a part of the pattern. A pattern prepares a mold cavity for the purpose of making a casting. Patterns properly made and having finished and smooth surfaces reduce casting defects. . 4. A pattern may contain projections known as core prints if the casting requires a core and need to be made hollow. 2. 3.
Facility and ease of removal.Surface finish of casting to be produced.Characteristics of pattern Ways in which pattern differs from an actual component:: It carries an additional allowance to compensate for metal shrinkage It carries an additional allowance over those portions which are to be machined or finished otherwise It carries an additional draft to enable its easy removal. non metals and alloys . 4. Important consideration for pattern making 1. Method of withdrawal from mould. No of casting desired from same pattern 3. 2. Requirement of pattern maker Thorough knowledge of working drawing High skill of workmanship Fully conversant with techniques and process of moulding and casting Knowledge of properties of metals. It carries additional projection for cores.
Resistant to wear and abrasion 5. which can cause distortion and dimensional changes. The main disadvantage of wood is its absorption of moisture. shaped and joined 2. Some materials used for making patterns are: wood. Dimensionally stable and unaffected by variations in temperature and humidity 7. Resistant to corrosion. plaster of Paris. and field of application. wax. the pattern material should be: 1. Also. and plastics. plastic and rubbers. it can be easily shaped and is relatively cheap. The most commonly used pattern material is wood. and resins. hard and durable 4. metals and alloys. Light in weight 3. Hence. plastic. To be suitable for use. limitations.Pattern Material Patterns may be constructed from the following materials. proper seasoning and upkeep of wood is almost a pre-requisite for large-scale use of wood as a pattern material . Each material has its own advantages. Available at low cost The usual pattern materials are wood. and to chemical reactions 6. Strong. Easily worked. since it is readily available and of low weight. metal.
white metal Plastic Rubber. brass. aluminum. joined Light weight Strong. shaped. plasters. hard.Pattern Material The selection of pattern material consists of the following factors: Service requirement Type of production of casting and type of moulding process Possibility of design changes Number of casting to be produced Requirement of good pattern material – easily worked. durable Dimensionally stable Easily available at low cost Repairable and reusable Able to take good surface finish Pattern material used Wood Metal – cast iron. waxes .
Types of pattern Types of patterns used in sand casting: (a) solid pattern (e) Gated pattern (b) split pattern (f) Skeleton pattern (c) match-plate pattern (g) Segmental pattern (d) cope and drag pattern (h) Built up pattern (i) Boxed up pattern .
number of castings are produced in a single multi cavity mould by joining a group of patterns by gate and runners and gates ensure proper flow of material into the mould. split on convenient joint lines and separately mounted on individual plates or boards. and held in their proper position by means of dowel –pins fastened in one piece and fitting holes bored in another Match-plate pattern – when split pattern are mounted with one half on one side of the plate and other half directly opposite on the other side of the plate. These are cheaper . partings or any loose piece in its construction is called a single piece or solid pattern. the cope and drag patterns used are made in halves. Split pattern – made of two parts.these are needed when the parts cannot be removed as one piece. . Loose piece pattern – Produced as assembly of loose component . Cope and drag pattern – to facilitate handling in large casting.Types of pattern Solid pattern – Pattern made without joints. the pattern is called match plate pattern and a single or no of pattern are mounted on match plate. Gated pattern – In mass production .
suitably placed in the sand mass. a vertical spindle and wooden template.The full equipment consists of a base. . In such case a pattern consisting of wooden strip and frame is made . The outer end of sweep carries the counter corresponding to the shape of desired casting and is rotated about the spindle to form the cavity (I) Segmental pattern – it is used to prepare moulds of large circular casting and is produced in segments. (h) Sweep pattern – sweeps can be advantageously used for preparing a mould of large symmetrical casting .Types of pattern (g) Skeleton pattern – When the size of casting is large but easy to shape and only a few members are to be made . it is uneconomical to make a large solid pattern of that size. called sweep. particularly of circular cross section .
.Single Piece Pattern The one piece or single pattern is the most inexpensive of all types of patterns. It is also used for application in very small-scale production or in prototype development. A gating system is made in the mold by cutting sand with the help of sand tools. This type of pattern is used only in cases where the job is very simple and does not create any withdrawal problems. A typical one-piece pattern is shown in Figure. the molding becomes complicated. If no such flat surface exists. This type of pattern is expected to be entirely in the drag and one of the surface is expected to be flat which is used as the parting plane.
Single Piece Pattern .
It is split along the parting surface. which are fitted. to the cope half of the pattern. These dowel pins match with the precisely made holes in the drag half of the pattern. the position of which is determined by the shape of the casting. . One half of the pattern is molded in drag and the other half in cope. A typical split pattern of a cast iron wheel Figure 7 (a) is shown in Figure 7 (b).Split or Two Piece Pattern Split or two piece pattern is most widely used type of pattern for intricate castings. The two halves of the pattern must be aligned properly by making use of the dowel pins.
Split or Two Piece Pattern .
On one side of the match plate. a complete mold with gating is obtained by joining the cope & drag together. . After molding. when the match plate is removed. the drag flask.Match Plate Pattern Here the cope & drag patterns along with the gating and the risering are mounted on a single matching metal or wooden plate or wooden plate on either side. the cope flask is prepared and on the other.
Match Plate Pattern .
the cope and drag patterns used are made in halves. split on convenient joint lines and separately mounted on individual plates or boards. .Cope and drag pattern to facilitate handling in large casting.
Cope and drag pattern .
it is uneconomical to make a large solid pattern of that size. In such case a pattern consisting of wooden strip and frame is made .SKELETON PATTERN When the size of casting is large but easy to shape and only a few members are to be made .
SKELETON PATTERN .
Thus.Pattern Allowances The dimensions of the pattern are different from the final dimensions of the casting required. Shrinkage or contraction allowance Draft or taper allowance Machining or finish allowance Distortion or camber allowance Rapping allowance . The selection of correct allowances greatly helps to reduce machining costs and avoid rejections. Pattern allowance is a vital feature as it affects the dimensional characteristics of the casting. 2. This dimension difference is known as Allowance. 3. The allowances usually considered on patterns and core boxes are as follows: 1. certain allowances must be given on the sizes specified in the finished component drawing so that a casting with the particular specification can be made. when the pattern is produced. 5. 4.
For example steel contracts to a higher degree compared to aluminum. The metal shrinkage is of two types: i. The various rate of contraction of various materials are given in Table 1. To account for this shrinkage. The rate of contraction with temperature is dependent on the material. Solid Shrinkage: it refers to the reduction in volume caused when metal loses temperature in solid state. A shrink rule for cast iron is 1/8 inch longer per foot than a standard rule. To account for shrinkage allowance is provided on the patterns. If a gear blank of 4 inch in diameter was planned to produce out of cast iron.Shrinkage Allowance Shrinkage or Contraction Allowance ( click on Table 1 to view various rate of contraction of various materials) All most all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically on cooling. a shrink rule must be used in laying out the measurements for the pattern. riser. To compensate the solid shrinkage. thus compensating for the shrinkage. are provided in the mold. ii. the shrink rule in measuring it 4 inch would actually measure 4 -1/24 inch. which feed the liquid metal to the casting. Liquid Shrinkage: it refers to the reduction in volume when the metal changes from liquid state to solid state at the solidus temperature. .
105 0.155 0.251 0.125 0.173 0.155 Cast Steel Aluminum Magnesium .125 0.143 0.191 0.155 0.083 0.Table 1 : Rate of Contraction of Various Metals Dimension Material Grey Cast Iron Up to 2 feet 2 feet to 4 feet over 4 feet Up to 2 feet 2 feet to 6 feet over 6 feet Up to 4 feet 4 feet to 6 feet over 6 feet Up to 4 feet Over 4 feet Shrinkage allowance (inch/ft) 0.
Assuming only shrinkage allowance.Exercise 1 The casting shown is to be made in cast iron using a wooden pattern. calculate the dimension of the pattern. All Dimensions are in Inches .
1875 inch » 0. 09 inch For dimension 6 inch.146 inch » 0.125 / 12 = 0. allowance 12 = 0.125 / 12 = 0.0833 inch » 0.15 inch For dimension 8 inch. allowance = 18 X 0. allowance 12 = 0. allowance = 14 X 0.125 inch per feet (as per Table 1) For dimension 18 inch. 07 inch = 8 X 0.0625 inch » 0.125 / = 6 X 0.125 / .2 inch For dimension 14 inch.Solution 1 The shrinkage allowance for cast iron for size up to 2 feet is o.
The pattern drawing with required dimension is shown below: .
. In this case. till the pattern is completely lifted out. Figure 3 (a) shows a pattern having no draft allowance being removed from the pattern. all of its surfaces are well away from the sand surface. the moment the pattern lifting commences.Draft or Taper Allowance By draft is meant the taper provided by the pattern maker on all vertical surfaces of the pattern so that it can be removed from the sand without tearing away the sides of the sand mold and without excessive rapping by the molder. Here. its sides will remain in contact with the walls of the mold. Thus the pattern can be removed without damaging the mold cavity. Figure 3 (b) is an illustration of a pattern having proper draft allowance. thus tending to break it.
Before After .
The amount of draft depends upon the length of the vertical side of the pattern to be extracted.Draft allowance varies with the complexity of the sand job. and pattern material. Table 2 provides a general guide lines for the draft allowance. the method of molding. But in general inner details of the pattern require higher draft than outer surfaces. Table 2 : Draft Allowances of Various Metals . the intricacy of the pattern.
The amount of machining allowance to be provided for is affected by the method of molding and casting used viz. the casting orientation.Machining or Finish Allowance The finish and accuracy achieved in sand casting are generally poor and therefore when the casting is functionally required to be of good surface finish or dimensionally accurate. . it is generally achieved by subsequent machining. The amount of machining allowance is also affected by the size and shape of the casting. hand molding or machine molding. Machining or finish allowances are therefore added in the pattern dimension. The machining allowances recommended for different metal is given in Table 3. sand casting or metal mold casting. and the degree of accuracy and finish required. the metal.
Assuming only machining allowance. All Dimensions are in Inches . calculate the dimension of the pattern.Exercise 2 The casting shown is to be made in cast iron using a wooden pattern.
allowance = 0. allowance = 0.20 inch ( (Table 3) For dimension 18 inch.12 inch The pattern drawing with required dimension is shown in Figure below .12 inch and from 12 inch to 20 inch is 0. up to 12 inch is o.20 inch For dimension 8 inch.12 inch For dimension 6 inch.20 inch For dimension 14 inch. allowance = 0. allowance = 0.Solution 2 The machining allowance for cast iron for size.
Distortion or Camber Allowance
Sometimes castings get distorted, during solidification, due to their typical shape. For example, if the casting has the form of the letter U, V, T, or L etc. it will tend to contract at the closed end causing the vertical legs to look slightly inclined. This can be prevented by making the legs of the U, V, T, or L shaped pattern converge slightly (inward) so that the casting after distortion will have its sides vertical ( (Figure 4).
The distortion in casting may occur due to internal stresses. These internal stresses are caused on account of unequal cooling of different section of the casting and hindered contraction. Measure taken to prevent the distortion in casting include: i. Modification of casting design ii. Providing sufficient machining allowance to cover the distortion affect iii. Providing suitable allowance on the pattern, called camber or distortion allowance (inverse reflection)
Before the withdrawal from the sand mold, the pattern is rapped all around the vertical faces to enlarge the mold cavity slightly, which facilitate its removal. Since it enlarges the final casting made, it is desirable that the original pattern dimension should be reduced to account for this increase. There is no sure way of quantifying this allowance, since it is highly dependent on the foundry personnel practice involved. It is a negative allowance and is to be applied only to those dimensions that are parallel to the parting plane.
MOULDING SAND AND ITS DESIRABLE PROPERTIES
• Strength - to maintain in shape and resist erosion • Permeability - to allow hot air and gases to pass through voids in sand • Thermal stability - to resist cracking on contact with molten metal • Collapsibility - ability to give way and allow casting to shrink without cracking the casting. Also automatically collapse the sand mould after solidification of casting. • Reusability - can sand from broken mold be reused to make other moluds? Refractoriness- ability of molding sand to withstand high temperature Flowability – ability to flow over and around the pattern and all portions of moulding mask during ramming Cohesiveness – ability of sand particles to stick together and retain a given shape of mould Adhessiveness – property by which sand particles stick to other body like sides of moulding base . Chemical resistivity – property due to which sand does not react chemically with molten metal.
.TYPES OF MOULDING SAND • Green-sand moulds ." Green" means mold contains moisture at time of pouring • Dry-sand mould . and water. permeability and refractoriness. clay.mixture of sand. It has adhesive property so to hold on vertical surface of mould.organic binders rather than clay and mold is baked to improve strength Facing sand –posses high strength and refractory Loam sand – contains clay up to 50%. Backing sand – Parting sand – sprinkled on pattern to avoid sand of one flask stick to sand of other flask Core sand – used to make core and has high silica content System sand – used to fill whole flask in machine moulding and has high strength. and sand mixed with water.
(16. 6) Slick and oval spoon (7) (8) Sand lifters and slicks. (17) Hand rammer (18) Spirit level . (13) Bound corner slick. (10) Flange and bead slick. (3) Joint trowel and (4) heart trowel (5) Gate cutter and pattern lifter. (14) Pipe slick. (15) Button slick.MOULDING TOOLS (1) Vent wire (2) Pattern lifter. (11) Corner slick.) Oval Slick. (9) Yankee heel lifter and flat slick. (12) Edge slick.
Sand casting Sand casting is a method involving pouring a molten metal into a sand mold. .
Incorporate a gating system. There are six steps in this process: Place a pattern in sand to create a mold. In the last stage the casting is separated from the mold. Remove the pattern. Break away the sand mold and remove the casting. Allow the metal to cool. . The mold is then cooled until the metal has solidified. Fill the mold cavity with molten metal.Sand casting A sand casting or a sand molded casting is a cast part produced by forming a mold from a sand mixture and pouring molten liquid metal into the cavity in the mold.
Sand casting .
Steps of sand casting .
Sand moulding .
• Wide variety of metals and alloys (ferrous and non-ferrous) may be cast (including high melting point metals). to top .Avdantages and disadvantages Advantages of sand casting • Low cost of mold materials and equipment.2” (2. Coarse Grain structure.5-5 mm).1”-0. Poor dimensional accuracy. Limited wall thickness: not higher than 0. • Large casting dimensions may be obtained. High machining tolerances. Disadvantages of sand casting • • • • • Rough surface.
These impressions can be obtained by using cores. Core prints are used to serve this purpose. recesses. its pattern and the mold cavity with core and core print is shown. of various sizes and shapes. A typical job. vertical and can be hanged inside the mold cavity. The core print is an added projection on the pattern and it forms a seat in the mold on which the sand core rests during pouring of the mold. provision should be made to support the core inside the mold cavity. etc.Core and Core Prints Castings are often required to have holes. The core print must be of adequate size and shape so that it can support the weight of the core during the casting operation. So where coring is required. Depending upon the requirement a core can be placed horizontal. .
Core and Core Prints .
Core and Core Prints Vertical cores Horizontal cores .
Gating system A mould cavity must be filled with clean metal in a controlled manner to ensure smooth. solid inclusions and voids. This can be achieved by a well-designed gating system . for the casting to be free of discontinuities. uniform and complete filling.
Depending on the position of the ingate(s). Top gating systems. as horizontal or vertical. These are however. in which hot molten metal enters at the top of the casting. They are widely used in sand casting of ferrous metals. runner and ingates). shell mould and diecasting processes. Horizontal gating systems are suitable for flat castings filled under gravity. They are employed in high-pressure sand mould. where the parting plane is vertical.Gating system Gating systems can be classified depending on the orientation of the parting plane (which contains the sprue. gating systems can be classified as top. as well as gravity diecasting of non-ferrous metals. suitable only for flat castings to limit the damage to metal as well as the mould by free fall of the molten metal during initial filling. promote directional solidification from bottom to top of the casting. parting and bottom. . Vertical gating systems are suitable for tall castings.
during trial runs.Gating system Bottom gating systems have the opposite characteristics: the metal enters at the bottom of the casting and gradually fills up the mould with minimal disturbances. where free fall of molten metal (from top or parting gates) has to be avoided. . Middle or side or parting gating systems combine the characteristics of top and bottom gating systems. If the gating channels are at the parting plane. they are also easier to produce and modify if necessary. It is recommended for tall castings.
Gating system .
Casting defects • There are numerous opportunities for things to go wrong in a casting operation. resulting in quality defects in the product • The defects can be classified as follows: – Defects common to -all casting processes – Defects related to sand casting process .
Casting defects Cold Shot Metal splatters during pouring and solid globule form and become entrapped in casting Shrinkage Cavity Depression in surface or internal void caused by solidification shrinkage that restricts amount of molten metal available in last region to freeze Sand Blow Balloon-shaped gas cavity caused by release of mold gases during pouring Pin Holes Formation of many small gas cavities at or slightly below surface of casting .
causing casting surface to consist of a mixture of sand grains and metal Mold Shift A step in cast product at parting line caused by side wise relative displacement of cope and drag Misrun A casting that has solidified before completely filling mould cavity Cold Shut Two portions of metal flow together but there is a lack of fusion due to premature freezing .Casting defects Penetration When fluidity of liquid metal is high. it may penetrate into sand mold or sand core.
permanent mold casting is often referred to as gravity die casting.Permanent mould casting Permanent mold casting is a metal casting process that shares similarities to both sand casting and die casting. like die casting. . sand casting uses an expendable mold which is destroyed after each cycle. Because the molten metal is poured into the die and not forcibly injected. Permanent mold casting. However. uses a metal mold (die) that is typically made from steel or cast iron and can be reused for several thousand cycles. As in sand casting. molten metal is poured into a mold which is clamped shut until the material cools and solidifies into the desired part shape.
Pouring . but expendable sand cores are sometimes used.The molten metal is poured at a slow rate from a ladle into the mold through a sprue at the top of the mold. The metal flows through a runner system and enters the mold cavity. Mold opening .During cooling. Then. Such cores are typically made from iron or steel. the two mold halves are opened and the casting is removed. a ceramic coating is applied to the mold cavity surfaces to facilitate part removal and increase the mold lifetime.The molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify in the mold.After the metal has solidified.Permanent mould casting steps Mold preparation . . This excess material is now cut away. In this step. Mold assembly . the mold is pre-heated to around 300500°F (150-260°C) to allow better metal flow and reduce defects.the two mold halves and any cores used to form complex features.First.The mold consists of at least two parts . Trimming . Cooling . the cores are inserted and the mold halves are clamped together. the metal in the runner system and sprue solidify attached to the casting.
Permanent mould casting .
Vacuum Permanent Mold Casting . The application of pressure allows the mold to remain filled and reduces shrinkage during cooling.Instead of being poured.Permanent mould casting Using these basic steps. As a result. other variations on permanent mold casting have been developed to accommodate specific applications. As a result. the molten metal is poured into the mold and begins to solidify at the cavity surface.As in permanent mold casting.Similar to low pressure casting. but vacuum pressure is used to fill the mold. slush casting is used to produce hollow parts without the use of cores. . When the amount of solidified material is equal to the desired wall thickness. Examples of these variations include the following: • • • Slush Casting . the remaining slush (material that has yet to completely solidify) is poured out of the mold. the molten metal is forced into the mold by low pressure air (< 1 bar). finer details and thin walls can be molded and the mechanical properties of the castings are improved. Low Pressure Permanent Mold Casting . Also. finer details and thinner walls can be molded.
wheels. engine components . housings.Permanent mould casting Advantages Can form complex shapes Good mechanical properties Many material options Low porosity Low labor cost Scrap can be recycled Disadvantages: High tooling cost Long lead time PossibleApplications: Gears.
hence the name die casting Use of high pressure to force metal into die cavity is what distinguishes this from other permanent mold processes .Die Casting A permanent mold casting process in which molten metal is injected into mold cavity under high pressure Pressure is maintained during solidification. then mold is opened and part is removed Molds in this casting operation are called dies.
Die Casting .
Die Casting Process -Hot chamber Metal is melted in a container.500 parts per hour not uncommon Applications limited to low melting-point metals that do not chemically attack plunger and other mechanical components Casting metals: zinc. and a piston injects liquid metal under high pressure into the die High production rates . tin. lead and magnesium .
Die Casting Process -Hot chamber Cycle in hotchamber casting: (1) with die closed and (2) plunger withdrawn. molten metal flows into the chamber .
brass. tin. and a piston injects metal under high pressure into die cavity • High production but not usually as fast as hot-chamber machines because of pouring step • Casting metals: aluminum.Die Casting Process –Cold chamber •Molten metal is poured into unheated chamber from external melting container. and magnesium alloys • Advantages of hot-chamber process favor its use on low melting-point alloys (zinc. lead) .
molten metal is poured into the chamber .Die Casting Process –Cold chamber Cycle in coldchamber casting: (1) with die closed and ram withdrawn.
Die Casting Process –Advantages $ Limitations • Advantages: – Economical for large production quantities – Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish – Thin sections are possible – Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting • Disadvantages: – Generally limited to metals with low melting points – Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity .
Die Casting Machines Hot-Chamber Die Casting Machine Cold-Chamber Die Casting Machine .
Die Casting .
the use of expendable sand molds is also possible.Centrifugal casting Centrifugal casting. sometimes called rotocasting. In centrifugal casting. The casting process is usually performed on a horizontal centrifugal casting machine (vertical machines are also available) and includes the following steps: . which use gravity or pressure to fill the mold. This differs from most metal casting processes. or graphite is typically used. cast iron. However. a permanent mold made from steel. is a metal casting process that uses centrifugal force to form cylindrical parts.
the mold remains spinning as the metal cools.While the centrifugal force drives the dense metal to the mold walls. are required to clean and smooth the inner diameter of the part. Cooling begins quickly at the mold walls and proceeds inwards. the mold is rotated about its axis at high speeds (300-3000 RPM). grinding.After the casting has cooled and solidified. which involves a few steps (application. without the use of runners or a gating system. Casting removal .With all of the molten metal in the mold. any less dense impurities or bubbles flow to the inner surface of the casting. Finishing . Once prepared and secured.Centrifugal casting steps Mold preparation . . rotation. The centrifugal force drives the material towards the mold walls as the mold fills. and baking).The walls of a cylindrical mold are first coated with a refractory ceramic coating. or sand-blasting. typically around 1000 RPM.Molten metal is poured directly into the rotating mold. the rotation is stopped and the casting can be removed. Cooling . As a result. Pouring . drying. secondary processes such as machining.
Centrifugal casting .
nozzles. these parts have a very fine grain on the outer surface and possess mechanical properties approximately 30% greater than parts formed with static casting methods. limitation Centrifugal casting is used to produce axi-symmetric parts. pressure vessels. coils. which are typically hollow. advantage. rings. and wheels. industrial. Low equipment cost Low labor cost . pipes/tubes. wheels. Long lead time possible Applications:Pipes.Centrifugal casting use. Due to the high centrifugal forces. and power transmission. nozzles . Advantages Can form very large parts . Secondary machining is often required for inner diameter . bushings. pulleys. Good mechanical properties Good surface finish and accuracy . such as cylinders or disks. pulleys. marine. Little scrap generated Disadvantages: Limited to cylindrical parts . cylinder liners. including aerospace. Centrifugal casting is performed in wide variety of industries. Typical parts include bearings.
or "invested". The pattern is surrounded. since the mold is destroyed during the process. . into ceramic slurry that hardens into the mold. dating back thousands of years. in which molten metal is poured into an expendable ceramic mold.a disposable piece in the shape of the desired part. The mold is formed by using a wax pattern . parts with complex geometries and intricate details can be created. Lox-wax processes are one-to-one (one pattern creates one part). which increases production time and costs relative to other casting processes. Investment casting is often referred to as "lost-wax casting" because the wax pattern is melted out of the mold after it has been formed.Investment casting Investment casting is one of the oldest manufacturing processes. However.
Investment casting requires the use of a metal die. and any machines needed for sandblasting. most commonly using aluminum alloys. aircraft. stainless steel. magnesium alloys. furnace. molten metal. or grinding. ceramic slurry. The process steps include the following: . cutting. and military industries. bronze alloys. cast iron. which includes parts for the automotive. wax.Investment casting Investment casting can make use of most metals. This process is beneficial for casting metals with high melting temperatures that can not be molded in plaster or metal. and tool steel. Parts that are typically made by investment casting include those with complex geometry such as turbine blades or firearm components. High temperature applications are also common.
The wax patterns are typically injection molded into a metal die and are formed as one piece. Heat treatment is also sometimes used to harden the final part. and then dried to form a ceramic shell around the patterns and gating system.After the mold has been filled. Several of these patterns are attached to a central wax gating system (sprue. the parts are separated from the gating system by either sawing or cold breaking (using liquid nitrogen). Cores may be used to form any internal features on the pattern.The mold is preheated in a furnace to approximately 1000°C (1832°F) and the molten metal is poured from a ladle into the gating system of the mold. and the material used. The ceramic mold is typically broken using water jets. to form a tree-like assembly. coated with more coarse particles. The shell is then placed into an oven and the wax is melted out leaving a hollow ceramic shell that acts as a one-piece mold. Cooling time depends on the thickness of the part. Mold creation .After the molten metal has cooled.Often times. the mold can be broken and the casting removed. thickness of the mold. Pouring . Finishing . The gating system forms the channels through which the molten metal will flow to the mold cavity. but other methods such as vacuum or pressure are sometimes used. This process is repeated until the shell is thick enough to withstand the molten metal it will encounter. but several other methods exist. . Casting removal .Investment casting steps Pattern creation . the molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify into the shape of the final casting. Cooling . and risers). Pouring is typically achieved manually under the force of gravity. Once removed. hence the name "lost wax" casting. runners.This "pattern tree" is dipped into a slurry of fine ceramic particles. filling the mold cavity. finishing operations such as grinding or sandblasting are used to smooth the part at the gates.
Investment casting .
lock parts. advantage. armament parts. limitation Advantages: Can form complex shapes and fine details Many material options High strength parts Very good surface finish and accuracy Little need for secondarymachining Disadvantages: Time-consuming process High labor cost High tooling cost Long lead time possibleApplications: Turbine blades. handtools. pipe fittings.Investment casting use. jewelry .
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