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Silent Knight :: 7550 Meridian Circle :: Maple Grove, MN 55369 :: 800-328-0103
Let’s examine the components that make a basic Fire Alarm Control System.
• The brains of the system • Provides power to the system, monitors inputs and controls outputs through various circuits • Performs other functions as required by the appropriate code
Elements of a Control Panel Requires two Power Sources Primary (AC) Secondary (DC) 4 .
Smoke Detector Manual Pull Station 5 .Elements of a Control Panel Inputs A fire alarm system can have a variety of input devices.
• Initiating Device Circuit (IDC): A circuit to which automatic or manual initiating devices are connected where the signal received does not identify the individual device operated 6 .Inputs • Initiating Device: A system component that originates transmission of a change of state condition. manual fire alarm box.. such as a smoke detector.. supervisory switch. etc.
Elements of a Control Panel Outputs Horns Strobes 7 .
Outputs • Notification Appliance: A fire alarm system component such as a bell. 8 . • Notification Appliance Circuit: A circuit or path directly connected to a notification appliance. tactile. or text display that provides audible. or visible output. horn. speaker. or any combination thereof. light.
The Basic System Main Controller Inputs Primary (AC) Outputs Secondary (DC) 9 .
Basic Fire Alarm Technology • Signal Initiation/Initiating Devices Need to understand stages of fire and what technology works best for each 10 .
The Stages of a Fire • Stage One Incipient: Products of Combustion particles are produced (<0. • Use ionization detectors 11 . May occur for milliseconds or days. No visible smoke or detectable heat.3 microns).
• Use Photoelectric Detectors 12 .3 microns). Little visible flame or noticeable heat.The Stages of a Fire • Stage Two Smoldering: Visible smoke particles are produced (>0.
UV) spectrums. and invisible (IR.The Stages of a Fire • Stage Three Flame: Rapid combustion produces radiant energy in the visible. Heat begins to buildup at this stage • Use Spark or Flame Detectors 13 .
The Stages of a Fire • Stage Four High Heat: Uncontrolled combustion is caused by the heating of nearby combustibles to their ignition point. • Use Heat Detectors Note! Major disadvantages of using thermal energy for fire identification are • Takes a while for a fire to be recognized • The toxic gases that are produced before an alarm point is reached 14 .
Types of Detectors • Photoelectric Light Scattering Light Obscuration • Ionization • Duct • Heat (Thermal) 15 .
and if the current reaches a certain level. the detector alarms. The photo cell generates a current when exposed to light. 16 .Photoelectric Smoke Detectors: Light-Scattering Type • Uses a Light-Emitting Diode (LED) that sends a beam of light into a dark chambera photo diode sits on the other side of a partition within the chamber • Smoke particles entering the chamber deflect some of the light rays into the photo cell.
Photoelectric Smoke Detectors: Light Obscuration Type • In a projected Beam Detector. • Total beam blockage generally results in a trouble signal. 17 . alarms are generated by diffusing the projected light beam by a specified percentage of obscuration.
Smoke particles entering the chamber disrupt the current and trigger the detector's alarm. Ionizing radiation develops a low. 18 .Ionization Smoke Detectors • Contain a small amount of radioactive material encapsulated in a metal chamber. but steady electrical current. • Ion detectors react more quickly to fast flaming fires that give off little smoke.
Fixed element is generally a non-restorable type.). and when activated.g.) (placement in a stable environment) (e.. Two common models have 135 and 200-degrees F range. etc. The Rate-of-Rise element is restorable when conditions return to normal.Heat Detectors • Fixed Detectors: Alarm when the sensing element reaches a certain set point. heating vents. 19 . • Rate-of-Rise Detectors: Respond when the rate of temperature increase is greater than an allowable limit (15 degrees in 60 secs. • Rate Compensation will respond regardless of the rate of temperature rise. ovens. must be replaced.
20 .Duct Detectors • Photoelectric detector mounted in housing outside the ductwork that has probes that extend into the duct to sample the air inside the duct. • Primarily used as a smoke control device to control the flow of air in ductwork.
Initiating Devices 21 . Generally a pulling down action. Dual Action Stations require two distinct operations.Manual Fire Alarm Stations • Manually-operated device used to initiate an alarm signal Single Action Stations require a single operation to activate it. A set-up and an activating action.
Horns. Speakers • Visual . Bells.Smell 22 .Strobes • Physical . Sounders. Chimes. Sirens.Notification Appliances Types • Audible .Bed shakers • Olfactory .
• Horns: Loud and distinctive output. Often used in highnoise environments.Audible Devices • Bells: Used if they are only for fire. Often used as an external gong to indicate the flow of water in the sprinkler system. or have a distinctive sound from other bell signaling devices. 23 . such as manufacturing plants.
Generally used where qualified personnel are continuously in attendance. Often. which are capable of producing a variety of tones. • Chimes: Soft-toned appliances used where loud noises could be disruptive to other operations. the tone is selectable during installation of the device. 24 .Audible Devices • Sounders: Electronic or mechanical audible devices.
Audible Devices • Sirens: Extremely loud devices generally limited in use to outdoor or heavy industrial areas. 25 . • Speakers: Audible devices used in conjunction with voice evacuation messages. Life-Safety speakers are not generally associated with Muzak systems.
Visual Signaling Appliances Visual signaling appliances are used in high-noise environments. 26 . in areas occupied by hearingimpaired individuals. or in areas where audible devices may not be desired.
Visual Devices Strobe Chime/Strobe Horn/ Strobe Speaker/ Strobe 27 .
The Fire Alarm Systems 28 .
Types of Fire Alarm Control Panels • Conventional (hard wired) Fixed Programmable • Addressable (multiplexed) • Intelligent (analog data transfer) 29 .
• Some models use auxiliary circuit boards to perform special functions.Conventional “Hard Wired” System • Simplest type of control unit. initiating and notification circuitry. • Limited special functions and capabilities. control. • Designated outputs occur when initiating signals are received. a single circuit board contains power supply. 30 . • Input/output devices connect to dedicated circuits. • Generally.
etc. input-to-output CIRCUIT (not device) mapping. • Output circuits are programmable for code selection and silenceability. 31 . • On some systems. • Initiating circuits are programmable for fire. supervisory service. waterflow.Conventional “Programmable” System • Basic “Designed System” • Components selected by the designer to meet the direct needs of the customer.
pull station…) has a unique number assigned to it called the address for reporting alarms and troubles. 32 . • Addressable devices transmit an electronic message back to the Control Unit representing their state (Normal.Addressable System • Each device (detector. • Employs a Signaling Line Circuit (SLC) Loop along which all addressable input and output devices are connected to the fire alarm control panel. Alarm. Trouble) when polled by the Control Unit.
Analog System • Always an Addressable System. 33 . • Processes detailed. • Employs Drift Compensation (self calibration) in its detectors. • Can provide sensitivity data for each detector. analog data from detectors about smoke levels.
Fire Alarm Control Unit. FCC .Authority Having Jurisdiction. Local AHJ ADAAG .Initiating Device Circuit NAC .Products of Combustion LED . LAHJ . FACU . EOL .Notification Appliance Circuit ELR.Underwriters Laboratories NFPA . AHJ.Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines.Fire Alarm Control Panel.Federal Communications Commission UL .National Fire Protection Agency.Terminology • • • • • • • • • • • • FACP .End of Line Resistor 34 .Light Emitting Diode IDC . PoC .
National Electrical Code (NFPA 70) NEMA . dBA .Decibels FWR .Electronics Industry Association Cd .Candela dB.National Electrical Manufacturing Association EIA .Indicates a recommendation or advisement 35 .Outside Stem and Yoke Valves SFPE .Full Wave Rectified ANSI .American National Standards Institute PIV .Post Indicator Valve OS&Y .Indicates a mandatory requirement Should .Society for Fire Protection Engineers Shall .Terminology • • • • • • • • • • • • NEC .
NFPA Life Safety Code Handbook. NFPA 36 .Life Safety Code National Electrical Code Handbook.References • • • • • • • NFPA 70 . NFPA Fire Protection Handbook.National Fire Alarm Code NFPA 101 .National Electrical Code NFPA 72 . NFPA Fire Alarm Signaling Systems.
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