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Chapter 13 – Tools for Process Improvement
Chapter 13 – Tools for
Process Improvement

Economic models, Deming

cycle, Juran’s sequence, 7

Quality tools, Kaizen blitz,

Poka-Yoke, Team skills

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Traditional Economic Model

of Quality of Conformance
of Quality of Conformance
Total cost Cost due to nonconformance 100%
Total cost
Cost due to
nonconformance
100%

Cost of quality assurance

“optimal level” of quality

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Modern Economic Model

of Quality of Conformance
of Quality of Conformance
Total cost Cost due to nonconformance
Total cost
Cost due to
nonconformance

Cost of quality assurance

100%

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Cost of Quality SJSU Bus. 142 DAB 09/23/02 External Failure  --------------------------------- External Failure Internal Failure
Cost of Quality
SJSU Bus. 142 DAB 09/23/02
External Failure
---------------------------------
External Failure
Internal Failure
---------------------------------
---------------------------------
Internal Failure
Prevention
---------------------------------
---------------------------------
Prevention
Appraisal
---------------------------------
Appraisal

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Problem Solving
Problem Solving
  • Problem: any deviation between what

“should be” and what “is” that is important

enough to need correcting

  • Structured

  • Semi-structured

  • Ill-structured

  • Problem Solving: the activity associated with changing the state of what “is” to what “should be”

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Quality Problem Types
Quality Problem Types
  • 1. Conformance problems

  • 2. Unstructured performance problems

  • 3. Efficiency problems

  • 4. Product design problems

  • 5. Process design problems

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

TQM Approach
TQM Approach
  • Know customer requirements and wants

  • Design a product to delight the customer

  • Design a process to do the job right (the first time and) every time

    • Apply fail-safing techniques (“poka-yoke” devices)

  • Monitor and record results for improvement ideas

  • Work with suppliers and customers

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Other TQM Points
Other TQM Points
  • Continual improvement (“kaizen”)

  • Competitive benchmarking

  • Employee enablement

  • Use of teams

  • Training

  • Extension to suppliers

  • Traditional vs. TQM cultures

SJSU Bus 142 David Bentley (Rev. 02/20/02)

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Problem Solving Process
Problem Solving Process
  • 1. Redefining and analyzing

the problem

  • 2. Generating ideas

  • 3. Evaluating and

selecting ideas

  • 1. Implementing ideas

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Process Improvement Methodology (sequenced) (1 of 3)

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Process Improvement Methodology (sequenced) (1
  • Develop process improvement plan

  • Determine process or area to examine

  • Form and train Process/Quality Improvement Team

  • Use coarse tools

    • Process flowchart

    • Check sheets and histograms

    • Fishbone chart <---

    • Pareto analysis --->

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

Process Improvement Methodology (sequenced) (2 of 3)

THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Process Improvement Methodology (sequenced) (2
  • Use fine tools

    • Process control charts

    • Run diagrams

    • Scatter diagrams

    • Failsafing

  • Determine process changes

  • Implement pilot process improvement

  • THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Process Improvement Methodology (sequenced) (3 of 3)

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Process Improvement Methodology (sequenced) (3
    • Measure and evaluate results

    • Repeat if results unsatisfactory; deploy full implementation if results satisfactory

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Deming Cycle
    Deming Cycle
    • Also known as:

      • Shewhart wheel or cycle

      • Deming wheel

      • Deming/Shewhart wheel or cycle

      • PDCA wheel or cycle

  • Focuses on both short-term continuous improvement and long-term organizational learning

  • THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    The Deming Cycle Mod. SJSU Bus. 142 DAB 09/29/02 Act Plan Check Do (Study)
    The
    Deming
    Cycle
    Mod. SJSU Bus. 142 DAB 09/29/02
    Act
    Plan
    Check
    Do
    (Study)

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Plan (1 of 2)
    Plan (1 of 2)
    • 1. Define the process: its start, end, and what it does.

    • 2. Describe the process: list the key tasks performed and sequence of steps, people involved, equipment used, environmental conditions, work methods, and materials used.

    • 3. Describe the players: external and internal customers and suppliers, and process operators.

    • 4. Define customer expectations: what the customer wants, when, and where, for both external and internal customers.

    • 5. Determine what historical data are available on process performance, or what data need to be collected to better understand the process.

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Plan (2 of 2)
    Plan (2 of 2)
    • 6. Describe the perceived problems associated

    with the process; for instance, failure to meet

    customer expectations, excessive variation, long cycle times, and so on.

    • 7. Identify the primary causes of the problems and their impacts on process performance.

    • 8. Develop potential changes or solutions to the process, and evaluate how these changes or solutions will address the primary causes.

    • 9. Select the most promising solution(s).

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Do
    Do
    • 1. Conduct a pilot study or experiment to test the impact of the potential solution(s).

    • 2. Identify measures to understand how any changes or solutions are successful in addressing the perceived problems.

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Check (Study)
    Check (Study)
    • 1. Examine the results of the pilot study or experiment.

    • 2. Determine whether process performance has improved.

    • 3. Identify further experimentation that may be necessary.

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Act
    Act
    • 1. Select the best change or solution.

    • 2. Develop an implementation plan: what needs to be done, who should be involved,

    and when the plan should be accomplished.

    • 3. Standardize the solution, for example, by writing new standard operating procedures.

    • 4. Establish a process to monitor and control process performance.

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Juran’s Improvement Program
    Juran’s Improvement Program
    • Proof of the need

    • Project identification

    • Organization for breakthrough

    • Diagnostic journey

    • Remedial journey

    • Holding the gains

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Bethesda Hospital Model Start Generate solutions Review Plan current situation Do Describe process Check no Explore
    Bethesda Hospital Model
    Start
    Generate solutions
    Review
    Plan
    current
    situation
    Do
    Describe
    process
    Check
    no
    Explore
    cause theories
    no
    Improvement?
    Collect and
    analyze data
    yes
    Act
    yes
    Improvement?

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Crosby Quality Improvement

    Program
    Program

    1.

    Management

    • 7. Zero defect

    commitment

    committee

    • 2. Quality improvement team

    • 3. Quality measurement

    • 4. Cost of quality evaluation

    • 5. Quality awareness

    • 6. Corrective action

    • 8. Supervisor training

    • 9. Zero defects day

      • 10. Goal setting

      • 11. Error cause removal

      • 12. Recognition

      • 13. Quality councils

      • 14. Do it over again

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Creative Problem Solving
    Creative Problem Solving
    • Mess Finding identify symptoms

    • Fact Finding gather data; operational definitions

    • Problem Finding find the root cause

    • Idea Finding brainstorming

    • Solution Finding evaluate ideas and proposals

    • Implementation make the solution work

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    The Seven QC Tools
    The Seven QC Tools

    1.

    Flowcharts

    • 2. Check sheets

    • 3. Histograms

    • 4. Cause-and-effect diagrams

    • 5. Pareto diagrams

    • 6. Scatter diagrams

    • 7. Control charts

    +

    Run charts

    Mod. SJSU Bus. 142 DAB 09/19/02

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Flowcharts
    Flowcharts
    • Shows unexpected complexity, problem areas, redundancy, unnecessary loops, and where simplification may be possible

    • Compares and contrasts actual versus ideal flow of a process

    • Allows a team to reach agreement on process steps and identify activities that may impact

    performance

    • Serves as a training tool

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Flowcharts  Shows unexpected complexity,
    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Flowcharts  Shows unexpected complexity,
    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Flowcharts  Shows unexpected complexity,
    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Flowcharts  Shows unexpected complexity,

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Check Sheet
    Check Sheet
    • Creates easy-to-understand data

    • Builds, with each observation, a clearer picture of the facts

    • Forces agreement o the definition of

    each condition or event of interest

    • Makes patterns in the data become obvious quickly

     

    xx

     

    xxxxxx

     

    x

       

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Histogram
    Histogram
    • Displays large amounts of data that are

    difficult to interpret in tabular form

    • Shows centering, variation, and shape

    • Illustrates the underlying distribution of the data

    • Provides useful information for predicting future performance

    • Helps to answer the question “Is the process

    capable of meeting requirements?

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Histogram  Displays large amounts

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Cause and Effect Diagram
    Cause and Effect Diagram
    • Enables a team to focus on the content of a problem, not

    on the history of the problem or differing personal interests of team members

    • Creates a snapshot of collective knowledge and consensus of a team; builds support for solutions

    • Focuses the team on causes, not symptoms

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Cause and Effect Diagram 

    Cause

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Cause and Effect Diagram 
    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Cause and Effect Diagram 

    Effect

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Pareto Diagram
    Pareto Diagram
    • Helps a team focus on causes that have

    the greatest impact

    • Displays the relative importance of problems in a simple visual format

    • Helps prevent “shifting the problem”

    where the solution removes some

    causes but worsens others

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM Pareto Diagram  Helps a

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Scatter Diagram
    Scatter Diagram
    • Supplies the data to confirm a hypothesis that two variables are related

    • Provides both a visual and statistical means

    to test the strength of a relationship

    • Provides a good follow-up to cause and effect diagrams

    * * * * * *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Control Chart
    Control Chart
    • Focuses attention on detecting and monitoring process variation over time

    • Distinguishes special from common causes of variation

    • Serves as a tool for on-going control

    • Provides a common language for discussion process performance

    * * * * * * *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Run Chart
    Run Chart
    • Monitors performance of one or more processes over time to detect trends, shifts,

    or cycles

    • Allows a team to compare performance

    before and after implementation of a solution

    to measure its impact

    • Focuses attention on truly vital changes in the process

    * * * * * * *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *
    *

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Other Tools for Process

    Improvement
    Improvement
    • Kaizen Blitz

    • Poka-Yoke

    • Process Simulation

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Kaizen Blitz
    Kaizen Blitz
    • “an intense and rapid improvement process in which a team or a department throws all its resources into an improvement project over a short time period, as opposed to traditional kaizen applications, which are performed on a part-time basis.”

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Poka-Yoke

    (Mistake-Proofing)
    (Mistake-Proofing)
    • Developed by Shigeo Shingo

    • An approach for mistake-proofing processes using automatic devices or methods to avoid simple human or machine error, such as forgetfulness, misunderstanding, errors in identification, lack of experience, absentmindedness, delays, or malfunctions

    Mod. SJSU Bus. 142 DAB 09/15/02

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Mistake-Proofing - 3 Levels
    Mistake-Proofing - 3 Levels
    • Design potential errors out of the product or process

    • Identify potential defects and stopping a process before the defect is produced

    • Find defects that enter or leave a process

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Poka-Yoke Examples

    (from John Grout’s Poka-Yoke Page)

    (refer to www.campbell.berry.edu/pokayoke) mod. 09/15/02 DAB
    (refer to www.campbell.berry.edu/pokayoke) mod. 09/15/02 DAB

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Skills for Team Leaders
    Skills for Team Leaders
    • Conflict management and resolution

    • Team management

    • Leadership skills

    • Decision making

    • Communication

    • Negotiation

    • Cross-cultural training

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    Skills for Team Members
    Skills for Team Members
    • Effective meetings

    • Shared decision making

    • Interviewing

    • Communication

    • Quality tools

    THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM

    5W2H Approach
    5W2H Approach
    • What?

    Subject

    • Why?

    Purpose

    • Where?

    Location

    • When?

    Timing/sequence

    • Who?

    People involved

    • How?

    Method

    • How much?

    Cost/impact

    SJSU Bus 142 David Bentley (Rev. 09/06/01)