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Automobile Safety Features

Andrew D. Bushner November 20, 2013 ME 407A Mechanical Engineering Seminar

Agenda
History of basic safety features Modern day advancements Future technology Problems

History Seat Belt


Feb. 10, 1885 Edward J. Claghorn
Designed to be applied

to the person, and provided with hooks and other attachments for securing the person to a fixed object.

1959 Volvo
Nils Bohlin invented 3-point seat belt

1968 Federal seat belt law took effect

History Antilock Brake System


1929 Gabriel Voisin
ABS for aircraft

1960s Ferguson P99, Jensen FF, Ford Zodiac


Limited use in cars

1978 - Robert Bosch


Mercedes-Benz offers worlds first production electronic ABS

History Head Restraint


1950s and 1960s
Vehicle manufacturers and safety research institutions devised head restraints

1969 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

History Air Bag


1953 John W. Hetrick
First to be issued a patent for airbag

1967 Allen K. Breed


Mechanically-based ball-in-tube component

1973 - Oldsmobile Toronado


First car with passenger airbag

1974 Ford and G.M.


Dual airbags offered

1995 Volvo
Side/torso airbags offered

1998 Federal Gov.


Dual frontal airbags mandated

History Electronic Stability Control


1987 Mercedes-Benz and BMW introduced traction control 1992 Bosch
Electronic Stability Programme to control lateral slippage

1997 G.M. and Delphi Corporation


StabiliTrak available on select Cadillacs

2000 Ford introduced AdvanceTrac 2007 - StabiliTrak standard on all G.M. SUVs

Modern Day Advancements


Lane Departure Warning
Introduced in America on 2005 Infiniti FX
Uses cameras mounted on rearview mirror Warnings include lights, sounds, or vibrations Also known as Lane Keeping Assist

Modern Day Advancements


Enhanced Visibility
2000 Passive Night Vision
Uses thermographic camera Cadillac Deville

2002 Active Night Vision


Uses infrared light Lexus Lx470

Modern Day Advancements


Enhanced Visibility
Adaptive headlights
1948 Tucker Sedan Advanced Front Lighting System

Modern Day Advancements


Cameras/Sensors
Rear view systems
Can be camera or sensors Show and alert driver of objects when reversing

Blind spot monitoring


Uses ultrasonic sensors on each side of the vehicle Alerts driver of vehicles in blind spot Can counter steer if needed

Modern Day Advancements


Active Braking Systems
Preliminary systems
E.g. Brake Assist Detect emergency braking situations

Advanced systems
E.g. Mercedes Brake Assist System Plus Uses radar and cameras to detect potential collisions

Adaptive Cruise Control


Slows down and speeds up automatically

Modern Day Advancements


Predictive Forward Collision Warning
Can analyze speed and distance of 2 vehicles ahead Audiovisual alerts of potential risks Capable of:
Pre-charging brakes or applying full brakes Positioning headrests Tightening seat belts Closing windows and sunroofs

Future Technology
Autonomous Emergency Steering System
Nissan announced system in late 2012 If the system determines a collision is imminent, car will apply brakes and steer if necessary

http://youtu.be/Jzd3XaBoBZo

(0:47 and 2:00)

Future Technology
Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication
Being tested by companies like Ford Wireless exchange of data between nearby vehicles Information exchanged would include direction, speed, and location

Future Technology
Mercedes-Benz Braking Bag
Started research in late 2009 Airbag inflates 80-100 milliseconds before collision Installed between the front axle and underbody Coated with rubber and steel for friction

Problems
No one to take blame should an accident occur Expensive Cars easily totaled in accidents Malfunctions

Resources
http://blog.esurance.com/seat-belt-history/#.Uok-UMTUmvQ http://inventors.about.com/od/sstartinventions/a/History-Of-Seat-Belts.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seat_belt_legislation_in_the_United_States http://www.motorweb.co.nz/abs-and-vehicle-stability-systems.do http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-parts/brakes/brake-types/anti-lock-brake.htm http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/regrev/evaluate/806108.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_stability_control http://www.dmv.org/how-to-guides/lane.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automotive_night_vision http://www.boschautomotivetechnology.com/en/de/driving_comfort/driving_comfort_systems_for_passenger_c ars_1/driver_assistance_systems_4/driver_assistance_systems_5.html http://www.howsafeisyourcar.com.au/Active-Braking-Systems/ http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/TECHNOLOGY/OVERVIEW/predictive.html http://www.nissanglobal.com/EN/TECHNOLOGY/OVERVIEW/autonomous_emergency_steering_system.html http://www.philstar.com/motoring/2013/07/24/1004581/4-future-automotive-safetytechnologies http://www.carlightingselector.com/en/features.html http://www.its.dot.gov/research/v2v.htm http://www.boston.com/cars/newsandreviews/overdrive/2010/03/a_mercedes_airbag_for_the _unde.html

Questions?