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# FOURIER SERIES

PERIODIC FUNCTIONS

A functi on f(x) i s sai d to be
peri odi c wi th peri od T i f
f(x+T)=f(x) x , where T i s a
posi ti ve constant . The l east
val ue of T>0 i s cal l ed the peri od
of f(x).

f(x+2T) =f ((x+T)+T)
=f (x+T)=f(x)
f(x+nT)=f(x) for al l x

Ex. 1 f(x)=si n x has peri ods 2t,
4t, 6t, . and 2t i s the peri od
of f(x).

Ex. 2 The peri od of si n nx and
cos nx i s 2t/ n.

FOURIER SERIES
Let be defi ned i n the
i nterval and outsi de the
i nterval by i .e
assume that has the
peri od .The Fouri erseri es
correspondi ng to i s
gi ven by

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
1
0
sin cos
2
n
n n
l
x n
b
l
x n
a
a t t
) (x f
) ( ) 2 ( x f l x f = +
) (x f
l 2
) , ( l l
) (x f
,.... 3 , 2 , 1
sin ) (
1
cos ) (
1
) (
1
0
=
=
=
=
}
}
}

n
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
dx x f
l
a
l
l
n
l
l
n
l
l
t
t
where the Fourier coeffecients are
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
dx x f
l
a
l c
c
n
l c
c
n
l c
c
}
}
}
+
+
+
=
=
=
2
2
2
0
sin ) (
1
cos ) (
1
) (
1
t
t

If i s defi ned i n t he i nt erval
(c, c+2 ), t he coeffi ci ent s can be
det ermi ned equi val ent l y from
) (x f
l
DIRICHLET CONDITIONS
Suppose that
1. f( x) i s defi ned and si ngl e val ued
except possi bl y at fi ni te number of
poi nts i n ( - l , +l )
2. f ( x) i s peri odi c outsi de ( - l , +l ) wi th
peri od 2l
3. f( x) and f ( x) are pi ecewi se
conti nuous i n( - l , +l )
T h e n t h e F o u r i e r s e r i e s o f
f ( x ) c o n v e r g e s t o

a ) f ( x ) i f x i s a p o i n t o f
c o n t i n u i t y

b ) [ f ( x + 0 ) + f ( x - 0 ) ] / 2 i f x i s a
p o i n t o f d i s c o n t i n u i t y
METHOD OF OBTAINING FOURIER
SERIES OF
= ) (x f
1.
,.... 3 , 2 , 1
sin ) (
1
cos ) (
1
) (
1
0
=
=
=
=
}
}
}

n
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
dx x f
l
a
l
l
n
l
l
n
l
l
t
t
2.
4.
3.
) (x f

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
1
0
sin cos
2
n
n n
l
x n
b
l
x n
a
a t t
SOLVED PROBLEMS
1. Expand f(x)=x
2
,0<x<2t in Fourier series
if the period is 2t . Prove that

6
...
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
2 2 2
t
= + + +
Period = 2 = 2 t thus = t and choosing
c=0
0
4
sin
2
cos
2
sin 1
cos
1
cos ) (
1
cos ) (
1
2
2
0
3 2
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
= =
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

=
=
=
=
}
}
}
+
n
n
n
nx
n
nx
x
n
nx
x
dx nx x
dx nx x f
dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
c
c
n
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
l l
SOLUTION
n
n
nx
n
nx
x
n
nx
x
nxdx x
nxdx x f
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
dx x a
c
c
n
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
4
cos
2
sin
2
cos 1
sin
1
sin ) (
1
sin ) (
1
3
8 1
2
0
3 2
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
0

=
(

+
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
=
= =
}
}
}
}
+
( )

=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
+ + =
1
2
2
2
1
0
sin
4
cos
4
3
4
) (
sin cos
2
) (
n
n
n n
nx
n
nx
n
x x f
nx b nx a
a
x f
t t
At x=0 the above Fourier series
reduces to

=
+
1
2
2
4
3
4
n
n
t
X=0 is the point of discontinuity

By Dirichlet conditions, the series converges
at x=0 to (0+4 t
2
)/2 = 2 t
2

=
=
+ =
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
6
1
4
3
4
2
n
n
n
n
t
t
t
2. Find the Fourier series expansion for the
following periodic function of period 4.

s <
< s +
=
2 0 2
0 2 2
) (
x x
x x
x f
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2 2
2
1
) (
1
) ( ) 4 (
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
0
2
0
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(

+ + =
=
= +

} }
}
x
x
x
x
dx x dx x
dx x f
l
a
x f x f
l
l
Solution
( ) ( )
( )
( )
| |

=
=
(
(
(
(

(
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
(

+ + =
=

} }
}
odd n f or
n
even n f or
n
n
x n
n
x n
x
n
x n
n
x n
x
dx x
n
x dx x
n
x
dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
n
l
l
n
2 2
2 2
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
0
2
8
0
) 1 ( 1
4
4
) (
2
cos
) 1 (
2
2
sin
2
4
) (
2
cos
) 1 (
2
2
sin
2
2
1
2
cos 2
2
cos 2
2
1
cos ) (
1
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t t
t
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )

} }
}

+ =
=
(
(
(
(

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
(

+ + =
=
1
2 2
2
0
2 2
0
2
2 2
2
0
0
2
2
1 2 cos
1 8
1 ) (
0
4
2
sin
) 1 (
2
2
cos
2
4
2
sin
) 1 (
2
2
cos
2
2
1
sin 2 sin 2
2
1
sin ) (
1
n
l
l
n
x
n
n
x f
n
x n
n
x n
x
n
x n
n
x n
x
dx
l
x n
x dx
l
x n
x
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t t
t
EVEN AND ODD FUNCTIONS

A f u n c t i o n f ( x ) i s c a l l e d o d d i f
f ( - x ) = - f ( x )
Ex : x
3
, s i n x , t a n x , x
5
+ 2 x + 3
A f u n c t i o n f ( x ) i s c a l l e d e v e n i f
f ( - x ) = f ( x )
Ex : x
4
, c o s x , e
x
+ e
- x
, 2 x
6
+ x
2
+ 2
EXPANSIONS OF EVEN AND ODD
PERIODIC FUNCTIONS
If is a periodic function defined in the
interval , it can be represented by the
Fourier series
Case1. If is an even function
dx x f
l
dx x f
l
a
l
l
l
}
}
=
=

0
0
) (
2
) (
1
) (x f
) , ( l l
) (x f
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
}

f unction odd is
l
x n
x f
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
f unction even also is
l
x n
x f dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
l
l
n
l
n
t
t
t t
sin ) ( 0
sin ) (
1
cos ) ( cos ) (
2
0

## I f a peri odi c f unct i on i s even i n

, i t s Fouri er seri es expansi on
cont ai ns onl y cosi ne t erms
) (x f
) , ( l l
}
}

=
=
+ =

=
l
n
l
n
n
dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
dx x f
l
a
l
x n
a
a
x f
0
0
0
1
0
cos ) (
2
) (
2
cos
2
) (
t
t
Case 2. When is an odd function
}

= =
l
l
dx x f
l
a 0 ) (
1
0
) (x f
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
}
}

even is
l
x n
x f dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
odd is
l
x n
x f dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
l
n
l
l
n
t t
t t
sin ) ( sin ) (
2
cos ) ( 0 cos ) (
1
0

## I f a peri odi c f unct i on i s odd i n

, i t s Fouri er expansi on
cont ai ns onl y si ne t erms
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
l
x n
b x f
l
n
n
n
t
t
sin ) (
2
sin ) (
0
1
}

=
=

=
) (x f
) , ( l l
1.For a function defined by
obtain a Fourier series. Deduce that
t t < < = x x x f , ) (
SOLVED PROBLEMS
8
....
5
1
3
1
1
1
2
2 2 2
t
= + + +
Solution
x x f = ) ( is an even function

=
+ =
1
0
cos
2
) (
n
n
l
x n
a
a
x f
t
( ) | | 1 1
2
cos sin 2
cos
2
cos
2
2
2 2
2
2
0
2
0 0
0
2
0
0
0
=
(

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
} }
}
}
n
n
n
n
nx
n
nx
x
nxdx x nxdx x a
x
xdx
dx x a
t
t
t t
t
t t
t
t
t t
t
t
t
SOLUTION
( ) | |

=

+ =
1
2
cos
1 1 2
2
) (
n
n
nx
n
x f
t
t
At x=0 the above series reduces to
( ) | |

=

+
1
2
1 1 2
2
n
n
n t
t
x=0 i s a poi nt of cont i nui t y, by
Di ri chl et condi t i on t he Fouri er
seri es converges t o f (0) and
f (0)=0
( )
8
....
5
1
3
1
1
1
....
5
2
3
2
1
2 2
2
0
1 1 2
2
0
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
1
2
t
t
t
t
t
= + + +
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
(

+ =

= n
n
n

< <
< <
=
3 0
0 3
) (
x when k
x when k
x f
I s t he f unct i on even or odd. Fi nd
t he Fouri er seri es of f (x)
PROBLEM 2
SOLUTION
is odd function
dx
x n
k
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
a a
l
n
n
3
sin
3
2
sin ) (
2
0 0
3
0
0
0
t
t
}
}
=
=
= =
) (x f

=

=
1
3
sin
] ) 1 ( 1 [ 2
) (
n
n
x n
n
k
x f
t
t
] ) 1 ( 1 [
2
3
3
cos
3
2
3
0
n
n
k
n
x n
k
=
(
(
(

=
t
t
t

=

=
1
3
sin
] ) 1 ( 1 [ 2
) (
n
n
x n
n
k
x f
t
t
] ) 1 ( 1 [
2
3
3
cos
3
2
3
0
n
n
k
n
x n
k
=
(
(
(

=
t
t
t

=

=
1
3
sin
] ) 1 ( 1 [ 2
) (
n
n
x n
n
k
x f
t
t
] ) 1 ( 1 [
2
3
3
cos
3
2
3
0
n
n
k
n
x n
k
=
(
(
(

=
t
t
t

0 , cos ) (
2
cos
2
) (
0
1
0
> =
+ =
}

=
n dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
where
l
x n
a
a
x f
l
n
n
n
t
t
HALF RANGE SERIES
COSINE SERIES
A function defined in can be expanded
as a Fourier series of period containing only
cosine terms by extending suitably in .
(As an even function)
) (x f
) (x f
) , 0 ( l
l 2
) 0 , ( l
SINE SERIES
A function defined in can be expanded
as a Fourier series of period containing
only sine terms by extending suitably in
[As an odd function]

1 , sin ) (
2
sin ) (
0
1
> =
=
}

=
n dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
where
l
x n
b x f
l
n
u
n
t
t
) (x f
) (x f
) , 0 ( l
). 0 , ( l
l 2
SOLVED PROBLEMS
Obtain the Fourier expansion of (x sinx )as a
cosine series in
.Hence find the value of

SOLUTION
Given function represents an even function in

) , 0 ( t
+ + +
7 . 5
2
5 . 3
2
3 . 1
2
1
nx
n
n
a
a
x f cos
1
2
0
) (

=
+ =
) , ( t t
| |
t
t
t
t
0
) sin ( 1 ) cos (
2
0
2
0
sin x x x a xdx x =
}
=
}
}
=
=
t
t
t
t
0
) (
2
0
0
cos ) (
2
dx x f a
nxdx x f
n
a
2 =
}
=
t
t
0
cos sin
2
nxdx x x a
n
}
(

+ + =
t
t
0
) 1 sin( ) 1 sin(
2
1 2
dx x n x n x
(
(
(
(
(
(

)
`

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
t
t
t
0
2
0
2
) 1 (
) 1 sin(
. 1
1
) 1 cos(
) 1 (
) 1 sin(
. 1
1
) 1 cos(
1
n
x n
n
x n
x
n
x n
n
x n
x
( )
1
1 2
1
1
1
1
) 1 (
2
1
1

=
(

n n n
n
n
n
n
n n

+

+
+

=
1
1
) 1 (
1
1
1
) 1 ( 1
if
1 = n
1 = n
dx x x xdx x x a
} }
= =
t t
t t
0 0
1
2 sin
1
cos sin
2
t
t
0
2
2
2 sin
. 1
2
2 cos 1
(

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=
x x
x
2
1
2
1
=
(

=
t
t

+ =
2
2
1
cos
1
) 1 (
2 cos
2
1
1 sin
n
n
nx
n
x x x
in
) , 0 ( t
At
2
t
= x
the above series reduces to
( )
2
cos
1
1
2 1
2
2
1
t n
n
n
n

+
is a point of continuity
2
t
= x

## The given series converges to

2
)
2
(
t t
= f
( )
2
cos
1
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
t t n
n
n
n

+ =
4
2
. ..........
7 . 5
1
5 . 3
1
3 . 1
1
= +
t
2) Expand in half range
(a) sine Series (b) Cosine series.
SOLUTION
(a)
Extend the definition of given function to that of an
odd function of period 4
i.e
)
`

< <
< <
=
2 0 ;
0 2 ;
) (
x x
x x
x f
2 0 , ) ( < < = x x x f
Here
dx
l
x n
x f
l
b
a
l
n
n
}
=
=
0
sin ) (
2
0
t
t t
t
t
t
t
n n
x n
n
x n
x
dx
x n
x f b
n
n
) 1 ( 4
)
2
2
sin
( 1 )
2
2
cos
(
2
sin ) (
2
2
2
0
2
2 2
2
0

=
(
(
(
(

=
=
}
2
sin
) 1 ( 4
) (
1
x n
n
x f
n
n
t
t

=

=
(b)
Extend the definition of given function to that of
an even function of period 4
)
`

< <
< <
=
2 0 ;
0 2 ;
) (
x x
x x
x f
dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
b
l
n
n
}
=
=
0
cos ) (
2
0
t
| |
0
;
1 ) 1 ( 4
)
2
2
cos
( 1 )
2
2
sin
(
2
cos ) (
2
2
2 2
2
0
2
2 2
2
0
=

=
(
(
(
(

=
=
}
n
n n
x n
n
x n
x
dx
x n
x f a
n
n
t t
t
t
t
t
}
= =
2
0
0
2 xdx a
| |
2
cos
1 ) 1 ( 4
1 ) (
1
2 2
x n
n
x f
n
n
t
t

=

+ =
Exercise problems
1.
)
`

< <
< <
=
t
t
x x
o x
x f
0 ; sin
; 0
) (
Find Fourier series of
) (x f
2.
) (x f
x
e

=
in
) 2 , 0 ( t
Find Fourier series of
) (x f
3.Find the Fourier series of
3
) ( x x f =
in
) , ( t t
4.Find the Fourier series of
2
4 ) ( x x f =
in
(-2 ,2)
5.Represent function
L
x
x f
t
sin ) ( =
In (0,L) by a Fourier cosine series
6.Determine the half range sine series for

=
x
x
x f
8
) (
4 0 < < x
8 4 < < x
PARSEVALS IDENTITY
To prove that
| |
(

+ + =

}

=

1
2 2 2
0
2
) (
2
1
) (
n
n n
l
l
b a a l dx x f
Provided the Fourier series for f(x) converges uniformly in (-l, I).
The Fourier Series for f(x) in (-l,l) is
) 1 ......( .......... sin cos
2
) (
1 1
0
l
x n
b
l
x n
a
a
x f
n
n
n
n
t t

=

=
+ + =
Multiplying both sides of (1) by f(x)and integrating term from l to l
( which is justified because f(x) is uniformly convergent)

) 2 .( .......... .......... ) (
2
) (
) ( ) (
2
sin ) ( cos ) (
2
) (
1
2 2
2
0
2
1 1
0
0
1
1 1
1
0
2
(

+ + =
+ + =
)
`

+
)
`

+ =

}

}

} }

=
n
n n
l
l
n
n n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
l
l
b a
a
l dx x f
lb b la a la
a
dx
l
x n
x f b dx
l
x n
x f a
a
dx x f
t t
CASE-I
| | ) 3 .....( .......... ) (
2
1
) (
1
2 2 2
0
2
2
0
(

+ + =

}

= n
n n
l
b a a l dx x f
If f(x) is defined in (0,2l) then Parsevals
Identity is given by
CASE-II
If half range cosine series in (o,l) for f(x) is
l
x n
a
a
x f
n
n
t
cos
2
) (
1
0

=
+ =
Then Parsevals Identity is given by
| | ) 4 ....( ..........
2
1
2
) (
1
2 2
0
2
0
(

+ =

}

= n
n
l
a a
l
dx x f
.
.
| | ) 5 ....( ..........
2
) (
1
2
2
0
(

=

}

= n
n
l
b
l
dx x f
CASE-III
If the half range Sine sereies in (0,l) for f(x) is
l
x n
b x f
n
n
t
sin ) (
1

=
=
Then Parseval,s Identity is given by
RMS VALUE OF FUNCTION
If a function y=f(x) is defined in ( c , c+2l ),then
dx y
l
l c
c
}
+2
2
2
1
is called the root mean square value (RMS value) of y in
( c , c+2l ).It is denoted by
y
dx x f
l
y
l c
c
}
+
=
2
2
2
) (
2
1
.
l y 2
2

. ) (
2
1
4
1
1
2 2 2
0
(

+ + =

= n
n n
b a a
. ) (
2
1
1
2 2 2
0
(

+ + =

= n
n n
b a a l
2
y
Equation(2) becomes
Equation(3) becomes
. ) (
2
1
1
2 2 2
0
(

+ + =

= n
n n
b a a l
l y 2
2

2
y
. ) (
2
1
4
1
1
2 2 2
0
(

+ + =

= n
n n
b a a
Equation(4) becomes
l y
2
.
2
1
2
1
2 2
0
(

+ =

= n
n
a a
l
2
y
.
2
1
4
1
1
2 2
0
(

+ =

= n
n
a a
Equation(5)becomes
2
y
.
2
1
1
2
(

= n
n
b
SOLVED PROBLEMS
1) Find the Fourier series of periodic function

x x x f =
2
) (
+ + + + .......
4
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
4 4 4 4
in
) , ( t t
Hence deduce the sum of series
Assuming that
6
1
2
1
2
t
=

= n
n
SOLUTION

. sin cos
2
) (
1 1
0
l
x n
b
l
x n
a
a
x f
n
n
n
n
t t

=

=
+ + =
in ) , ( t t
3
2 1
) (
1
2
2
0
t
t t
t
t
t
t
} }

= = = dx x dx x f a
n
n
n
n
nx
x
n
nx
x nxdx x x nxdx x f a
) 1 (
4
cos
2 )
sin
(
1
cos ) (
1
cos ) (
1
2
2
2 2
=
(

= = =

} }
t
t
t
t
t
t
t t t
if
0 = n
n
n
n n
nx
n
nx
x
nxdx x nxdx x x nxdx x f b
) 1 (
2
)
sin
( 1 )
cos
(
1
sin
1
0 sin ) (
1
sin ) (
1
2
2
=
(

=
= = =

} } }
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t t t
nx xcos
is odd function
nx x sin
2

is odd function
in
nx
n
nx
n
x f
n
n
n
n
. sin
) 1 (
2 cos
) 1 (
4
3
) (
1 1
2
2

=

+ =
t
) , ( t t
Using the Parsevals Identity
. ) (
2
1
4
1
1
2 2 2
0
(

+ + =

= n
n n
b a a
2
y
3 5
) (
2
1
2 4
2
2
2
t t
t
t
t
+ = =
}

dx x x y

=

=
+ + = +
= = =
1
2
1
4
4 2 4
2
2
0
4
2
1 16
2
1
9
4
4
1
3 5
) 1 (
2
; ) 1 (
4
;
3
2
n n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
b
n
a a
t t t
t
90
1
4
1
4
t
=

= n
n
6
1
2
1
2
t
=

= n
n

## 2)By using sine series for

1 ) ( = x f
i
t < < x 0
in
Show that
+ + + + = .......
7
1
5
1
3
1
1
8
2 2 2
2
t
SOLUTION
= =

=
l
x n
b x f
n
n
t
sin ) (
1
| |
n
n
n
n
nx
nxdx nxdx x f b
) 1 ( 1
2
)
cos
(
2
sin
2
sin ) (
2
0
0 0
=
)
`

= = =
} }
t
t t t
t
t t
for 0 = n
nx x f x f
n
sin ) ( ) (
1

=
=
nx
n
x f
n
n
sin
) 1 ( 1 2
1 ) (
1

=

= =
t
.
2
1
1
2
(

= n
n
b
2
y
| |
2
1
2 2
0
2
2
) 1 ( 1
4
2
1
1 1
1
n
n
n
dx y = = =

}

=
t t
t
By Parsevals Identity
+ + + + = .......
7
1
5
1
3
1
1
8
2 2 2
2
t
3)Prove that in
l x < < 0
) ..........
5
cos
5
1 3
cos
3
1
(cos
4
2
2 2 2
+ + + =
l
x
l
x
l
x
n
l l
x
t t t
and deduce that
96
.......
7
1
5
1
3
1
1
1
4
4 4 4 4
t
= + + + +
SOLUTION
In Half range cosine series
} }
= = =
l l
l xdx
l
dx x f
l
a
0 0
0
2
) (
2
| | 1 ) 1 (
2
)
cos
.( 1 )
sin
(
2
cos
2
cos ) (
2
2 2
0
2
2 2
0 0
=
(
(
(
(

=
= =
} }
n
l
l l
n
n
l
l
n
l
x n
l
n
l
x n
x
l
dx
l
x n
x
l
dx
l
x n
x f
l
a
t t
t
t
t
t t
l
x n
a
a
x f
n
n
t
cos
2
) (
1
0

=
+ =
l
x n
n
l
x
n
t
t
cos
4 1
2
... 5 , 3 , 1
2 2

=
=
.
2
1
4
1
1
2 2
0
(

+ =

= n
n
a a
2
y
By Parsevals Identity
| |
2
1
4 4
2 2 2
2
0
2
0
2
2
1 ) 1 (
4
2
1
4 3
3
1
) (
1
+ =
= = =

} }

=
n
n
l l
n
l l l
l
dx x
l
dx x f
l
y
t
96
.......
7
1
5
1
3
1
1
1
4
4 4 4 4
t
= + + + +
COMPLEX FORM OF FOURIER
SERIES
The Fourier series of a periodic
function of period 2l is

=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+
+ =

=
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
1
0
1
0
2 2 2
) (
2
sin
2
cos
sin cos
2
) (
n
l
x n
i
l
x n
i
n
l
x n
i
l
x n
i
n
i i i i
n
n n
i
e e
b
e e
a
a
x f
i
e e e e
l
x n
b
l
x n
a
a
x f
t t t t
u u u u
u u
t t
( ) ( )
,.... 2 , 1 , 0 ) (
2
1
2
1
,
2
1
,
2
1
) (
0 0
1
0
= =
+ = = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
}

n f or dx e x f
l
c
ib a c ib a c a c
e c e c c x f
l
l
l
x in
n
n n n n n n
n
l
x n
i
n
l
x n
i
n
t
t t
The Fourier series can be represented in the
following way
}

=
=
=
=
l
l
l
x in
n
n
n
l
x in
n
dx e x f
l
c where
dx e c x f
t
t
) (
2
1
) (
SOLVED PROBLEM
1.Find the complex form of the Fourier series
of the periodic function

< <
< <
=
l x l when
l x when
x f
2
0 0
) (
o
| |
t t
t
t t
t
t
o
t
o
o
t
ni in
l
l
l
x in
l
l
l
x in l
l
x in
n
l
l
x in
n
n
n
e e
i n
e
in
l
l
dx e dx e
l
c
dx e x f
l
c
l
x in
e c x f

=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
} }
}

2
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
SOLUTION
2.Find the complex form of Fourier seriesof
f(x)=sinx in (0,t)
( ) | |
( ) | |
l
x in
e
n
i
x f
n
i
i n
n
n
n
n
t
t
o
t
o
t
o

=
=
=
=
) ) 1 ( 1 (
2
) (
1 1
2
1 1
2
( )
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
cos sin 2
4 1
1
sin
1
) (
1
2
) (
(

=
=
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =

=
}
}

x x in
n
e
dx xe
dx e x f c
e c
l e c x f
inx
inx
inx
n
n
inx
n
n
x in
n

SOLUTION
( )
( )
( )
( )
) , 0 (
1 4
1 2
) (
1 4
2
1
1 4
1
2
2
2
2
2
t
t
t
t
t
in e
n
x f
n
e
n
c
n
inx
in
n

=
+

=
HARMONIC ANALYSIS
( )
}
}
}

=
=
=
+ + =

=
t
t
t
t
t
t
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
1
0
sin ) (
1
cos ) (
1
) (
1
sin cos
2
) (
nxdx x f b
nxdx x f a
dx x f a
nx b nx a
a
x f
n
n
n
n n
| | ( )
| | ( )
| | ( ) t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
2 , 0 sin ) ( 2
sin ) (
2
1
2
2 , 0 cos ) ( 2
cos ) (
2
1
2
2 , 0 ) ( 2 ) (
2
1
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
in nx x f of mean
nxdx x f b
in nx x f of mean
nxdx x f a
in x f of mean dx x f a
n
n
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
}
}
}
The t er m a
1
cosx+b
1
si nx i s cal l ed t he
f undament al or f i r st har moni c,
t he t er m a
2
cosx+b
2
si nx i s cal l ed t he
second har moni c and so on.
Solved Problem
1.Find first two harmonics of Fourier
Series from the following table