You are on page 1of 30

EDU 5500 HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN INDIA

NAMA

: VANI A/P RAMASAMY

METRIC : GS 27 625 M.Ed

PENSYARAH: TUAN SHEIKH KAMARUDDIN BIN SHEIKH AHMAD

Current Population of India , with 1,220,200,000 (1.22 billion) people. Second most populous country in the world, while China is on the top with over (1.35 billion) people. The figures show that India represents almost 17.31% of the world's population, which means one out of six people on this planet live in India.

Physical perfection has been an integral part of Hinduism, means to fully realize one's Self is defined as the body way or dehvada. During the era of the Rig Veda, Ramayana and Mahabharata, men of a certain stature were expected to be well in racing, archery, military stratagems, swimming, wrestling and hunting. During the Indus valley civilization ( 2500 - 1550 B.C ) the weapons involved in war and hunting exercises included the bow and arrow, the dagger, the axe and the mace.

These weapons of war-the javelin (toran) and the discus ( chakra ).


In Manas Olhas ( 1135 AD.), Someshwar writes at length about bharashram ( weight - lifting ), bharamanshram (walking ), both of which are established Olympic disciplines at present.

Women, too, excelled in sport and the art of self - defence, and were active participants in games like cock - fighting, quail - fighting and ram - fighting.

In the 16th century, a Portuguese ambassador who visited kishnanagar was impressed by the range of sports activity, and the many sports venues, in the city. The king, Raja Krishnadev was an ace wrestler and horseman, himself.

The relationship between a student and teacher in the disciplines of Judo and Karate could trace its roots to the guru - shishya tradition, India was, and continues to be famous for. The technique of Pranayama or breathing control, which is a prominent feature of Tae-kwan-do, Karate, Judo and Sumo wrestling was one of the many techniques spread in the Far East by Buddhist pilgrims from India. If mind and body are one, the possibilities of development of one's physical and mental capabilities are limitless, provided they are united and controlled.

India has had a long history of physical education, far more ancient than Greece. India has got the British system of education having its own structure and functions in heritage and a concerted effort has been made since then, to utilize that heritage in order to achieve comparable results by democratic.

The goal of life is to get good and dynamic celebrity and can get it through effective physical education.
The present volume is a humble effort to present the problems of Physical Education through their past history.

1882

For the first time it was the Indian Education Organization that recommended Physical Training be Promoted in the interest of youth in each class of School. The question of making Physical Education as a compulsory subject has considered. Vidya Borthers founded Sir Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravathi, basically to serve the course of Physical Education in India The outstanding development of scientific Physical Education in India in Pre- Independence days goes to the Y.M.C.A. college of Physical Education , Madras founded in 1920 by H. C. Buck. this college has been working tirelessly and selflessly to promote and systematize Physical Education in India.

1884

1914

1920

Young Men's Christian Association (Y.M.C.A)

FOUNDER Y.M.C.A

Mr. Harry Crowe Buck

Recognized by National Council for Teacher Education and Government of Tamil Nadu

To provide facilities and opportunities to young people for enhancement of their skills and fitness through

:: Recreation Swimming, Gym, Tennis, Billiards, Snooker, Table Tennis, Karate and Volleyball.
:: Coaching Swimming, Cricket, Basketball, Volleyball, Tennis, Table Tennis, Billiards, Snooker, Karate & Aerobics. :: Competitions Swimming, Athletics, Basketball, Table Tennis, Body Building, Volleyball and Boxing.

1927

Indian Olympic Association (I.O.A) was formed with the efforts of Dr. A. G. Noehren and Mr. H. C. Buck. I.O.C started to promote and encourage Physical, Manual and Cultural Educations of youth of the Nation for the development of Character, good health and good citizenship, also to enforce all rules and regulations of International Olympic Committee and to educate the Public of the Country as to the value of amatensism in sports.

1931

Government College of Physical Education, Hyderabad

1938

Training Institute of Physical Education, Kandivali ( Bombay ). The three Institutions were established to promote systematic, scientific Physical Education courses in India

1947

The Central Government retained the vital affairs of Education, by coordinating and formulating the directives to the states keeping in view the national objectives to be achieved.
It is out of these phenomenal charges that Physical Education has been considered part and parcel of school education programme. A considerable number of Institutions for training teachers for Physical Education have come up ever since independence. New schemes have been put into operations to boost up the standard of sports and Health standards of people.

1950

The Central Advisory Board of Physical Education and Recreation was setup (CABPER). Union Ministry of Education has taken a number of steps in the field such as development training of leaders in Physical Education, Institution of Scholarship for research in Physical Education, conduct of National Physical Efficiency Drive, conduct of seminar on Physical Education, giving financial assistance to the colleges of Physical Education, giving directions to the state governments for affecting organization of Physical Education in their respective states.

1953

Government of India introduced the Rajkumari Coaching Scheme for Games and Sports with the object of training good athletes and sportsmen.
All India Council of Sports, School Games Federation of India, National Discipline Scheme (NDS) were established with the aim to regularize the promotions of the sports and working of sports bodies. To make the youth healthy in mind and body and instill in them a sense of patriotism, self reliance, tolerance and self-sacrifice. To develop human values and to build in them a desire to serve the country and humanity at laye. A National Syllabus of Physical Activities was formed. With the recommendation of CABPER, Laxmi Bai National college of Physical Education at Gwalior (M.P.) was established. This is the only Physical Education College being sum by Central Government. This institute apart Research Programmes, training and teaching for Physical Education personals.

1954

1956 1957

1958

Government of India set up on Add hoc enquiry Committee on Games and sports to suggest ways to improve the standards of Indian competitions in all games and sports.
Government of India appointed a Co-ordination Committee, under the chairmanship of Dr. Hirdya Math Kunzuru, to examining the various schemes for Physical Education, recreation, character building and discipline operating in Educational Institutions, and to recommend measure for the proper Co-ordination. The national Physical Efficiency Drive was launched by the Union Ministry of Education in 1959-69. The plan consisted of certain items of Physical Efficiency tests which prescribed standards for achievement. It was hoped that drive would arouse the interest of young and old men and women to check their performance abilities and thus stimulate their keen ness for Physical Fitness.

1959

1961

As a follow up action to the recommendations of the Add hoc-Enquiry Committee of 1958 the Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports was established by the Government of India in 1961 at state Bagh, Palance, Patiala stressing to produce Coaches of high caliber in various games.
The Kunzur Committee studied the prevailing conditions in other countries, consulted expects including vice-chancellors of convenities, Educational administrations, Physical Educationists etc. and submitted report. The report is probably first even authorititative assessment of Physical Education in this country. The committee admitted that Physical Education is one of the important basis on which should rest school and colleges for improving the nations physique.

1963

1965

The state education secretaries and direction of public instruction met in New Delhi in February and April 1965, and decided unanimously to introduce the National Fitness Corps (NFC) on a compulsory basis in all Universities, college and high and higher secondary schools in the country. With this ACC has managed with NCC & MDS has ended with the function of HFC. The colleges of Physical Education in the country were asked to reformulate their syllabus for various training classes, so that teachers who could handle NFC programme could be produced.
Sports authority of India has been established at Delhi . The University Education Commission (1948-49) felt that the all round development of the individual is facilitated through a Various Commissions balance programme of education which shall necessarily include Physical Education and Physical Education are complementary to each other and must be integrated in such a may as to form an organic whole. After Independence in India , much emphasis has been given on Physical Education Recognising the importance of Physical Education in schools, colleges and universities.

1984

1992

NCERT put formed a revised curriculum for school education and in 1992, and its revised edition is Nov. 2000. under the title National Curriculum Frame work for School Education. In this curriculum include Health and Physical Education as one of the core subjects in all levels of school educations. This curriculum was to be revived by NCERT, every five years, therefore, a new edition should be made available in the year 2005.

1993

A National Advisory Committee was setup by MHRD, on 1993. The committee report published in 1993 was reprinted in 2004 under the title Learning Without Bonded. This has been discussed in the Parliament. The chairmen of the committee has Prof. Yashpal.

CHESS

MARTIAL ARTS

PLAYING CARDS

YOGA

KABADDI SILAMBAM KHO-KHO

MARTIAL ARTS

KUSHTI

TRADISIONAL & ADVENTURES SPORTS IN INDIA


ARCHERY
MALLAKHAMB

CAMEL RACE JALLIKATTU

VALLAMKALI

1. KABADDI
It is one of the most popular sports in India played by the people in villages as well as in small towns. Kabaddi is an Indian game which requires both power and skill for its play. It is a simple and inexpensive game and doesnt require any playing equipment. Regular Kabaddi tournaments are held throughout the country.

2. KHO-KHO
Kho-Kho is one of the most popular traditional sports in India. Kho Kho is a run and touch game that is very simple to play and can be enjoyed by people of all ages. It does need any good physical fitness just need skills to play.

3. KUSHTI
The Indian wrestling is the best sports to play and maintain the physical. It needs to be follow some set rules to become a wrestler. A heavy diet and strict discipline is to be maintain by the wrestler.

4. MALLAKHAMB
Mallakhamb is a traditional Indian sport in which a gymnast performs poses and feats while hanging from a vertical wooden pole or rope. It is also used as a form of exercise to get high level of fitness by the Phalwan or Indian Wrestlers. This is the one of the beautiful Indian sports.

5. VALLAMKALI

The snake boat race, known as Vallamkali in Kerala. It is an


interesting traditional game held on the occasion of Onam. It is a famous water sport and one of the main attraction held in Kerala.

6. JALLIKATTU
Jallikattu is one of the oldest living ancient sports seen in the modern

era. The ancient sport of Jallikattu pits crowds of brave young men against
angry bulls. It is similar to the Spanish running of the bulls but a traditional part of Pongal celebrations in Tamil Nadu.

7. CAMEL RACE
Camel racing in Pushkar is one of the major attractions for tourist in

Rajasthan. These camels are decorated beautifully at the time of race.


Pushkar is one of the oldest living city in India, and it is gaining popularity for one of the biggest annual fair of camels. It was really a good experience to watch the camel race in Pushkar.

8. ARCHERY
Archery is one of the most ancient sports originated in India. This is

the favorite pastime or sports of the people of Manipur, Its an everyday


activity of the state dwellers. During every festival archery matches are held.

9. MARTIAL ARTS
Martial art is a part of Indias ancient culture. Kalarippayattu is the one of the oldest form of Indian martial art. This famous art is from Kerla. Indial martial art is a gift to the modern world and mother of all other Asian martial arts.

10. SILAMBAM
The Pandya kings in Tamil Nadu promoted Silambam fencing, as did their Chola and Chera counterparts. The silambam staff was one of the martial art weapons, that was in great demand with the visitors. The use of the long staff for self defence/mock - fighting was a highly organised game in the state as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D.

CONCLUSION:

In our modern society the term Physical Education has been understood in different ways. Some say it is the education of the body, which is educating the body to achieve some skills and abilities as it is done, for example, in sports. Others think it is the education to the body, which is working out only to improve ones looks.

Thus the Physical Education is made to be an ongoing continuous process without a break with participation by the greater number.
This is what is required in an Country.