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MULTI STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION

INTRODUCTION

Desalination Processes
Several

technologies for desalination of seawater have been developed over time and can be classified as either Distillation or membrane processes. These technologies include Multistage Flash (MSF), Multiple Effect (MED), Vapor Compression (VC), Reverse Osmosis (RO), Hybrid System (MSF/MED + RO).

DISTILLATION

Method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatility of components in a boiling liquid mixture. Phase separation method whereby saline water is heated to produce water vapor, which is then condensed to produce freshwater. Various distillation process

Multi Stage Flash Distillation(MSF) Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) Vapor Compression (VC)

FLASH DISTILLATION

Process in which the liquid is preheated and is then subjected to a pressure below its vapor pressure causing boiling or flashing to occur. Sea water first heated in tubes and then put in a chamber with a vapor pressure lower than in the heating tubes and the liquid evaporates. The vapors flash off the warm liquid and the salts exit with the remaining water. Process is inefficient.

EVAPORATORS

Thermal evaporation is the principal mechanism in generating fresh water vapor from seawater. Evaporation process is based on creating a hot surface using heating steam; the heating steam condenses on one side and vapor is formed on the other. Evaporators include Submerged tube Falling lms and Plates

SUBMERGED TUBE EVAPORATOR

Heating steam condenses on the wall of the tube in the rst effect, and releases its latent heat to a thin layer of liquid surrounding the outside surfaces of the tubes. This results in the formation and release of vapor bubbles, which rise through the liquid and are released into the vapor space. Formed vapor is routed to the second effect, where it condenses on the wall of the tube and results in the formation of a smaller quantity of vapor. Vapor released in second effect can be either routed to another effect, or condensed against the feed seawater.

FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR

Two arrangements for the falling lm system

Horizontal tubes Vertical tubes

HORIZONTAL TUBE FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR

VERTICAL TUBE FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR

PLATE EVAPORATORS

MULTI STAGE FLASH DISTILLATION

Preheated liquid passes through a series of stages or chambers with each successive stage at a lower vapor pressure so some of the liquid will flash at each stage. MSF has
Capacities ranging from 4000 to 30000 m3/day Operating temperature 90 to 120 oC 4 to 40 stages- each successive stages operating at lower temperature and pressure

MSF accounts for approximately 85% of commercial desalination worldwide

PRINCIPLE OF MSF

Consists of two chambers Preheat

chamber Flash chamber

Salt water enters a bundle of tubes located in the vapor space of the preheat chamber. Water then flows into heater consisting of a bundle of tubes which heated externally by steam. Water is heated to 100 degrees C, but it does not boil because the pressure is above 1 atm

PRINCIPLE OF MSF (contd.)

Hot sea water then enters a flash chamber kept under reduced pressure. Vapors flashed off are then condensed on tubes carrying the incoming flow of cold sea water. Condensing the water by heat exchange with the incoming flow in one of the economical advantages of this process. Distillate and remaining salt water are restored to atmospheric pressure by pumps.

MULTIPLE EFFECT DISTILLATION

Consist of multiple stages or effects. In each stage the feed water is heated by steam in tubes. Some of the water evaporates, and this steam flows into the tubes of the next stage, heating and evaporating more water. Each stage essentially reuses the energy from the previous stage.

MULTIPLE EFFECT DISTILLATION(contd.)

Tubes can be submerged in the feed water, but more typically the feed water is sprayed on the top of a bank of horizontal tubes, and then drips from tube to tube until it is collected at the bottom of the stage.

ADVANTAGES OF MED

Low energy consumption (less than 1.0 kWh/m3) compared to other thermal processes Operates at low temperature (< 70 C) and at low concentration (< 1.5) to avoid corrosion and scaling Does not need pre-treatment of sea water and tolerates variations in sea water conditions Highly reliable and simple to operate Low maintenance cost 24 hour a day continuous operation with minimum supervision Can be adapted to any heat source, including hot water, waste heat from power generation, industrial processes, or solar heating.

VAPOUR COMPRESSION

Distillation process where evaporation of sea or saline water is obtained by the application of heat delivered by compressed vapor. Compression of the vapor increases both the pressure and temperature of the vapor, it is possible to use the latent heat rejected during condensation to generate additional vapor.

VAPOUR COMPRESSION (contd.)

Effect of compressing water vapor can be done by two methods


Ejector

system- Ejecto or Thermo Compression. Mechanical system- mechanical vapor compression (MVC)
Vapor Compression (VC)- evaporation effect takes place at manometric pressure Vacuum Vapor Compression (VVC)-evaporation takes place at sub-atmospheric pressures (under vacuum).

VAPOUR COMPRESSION (contd.)

Compression is mechanically powered by a compression turbine. Vapor generated, is passed over to a heat exchanging condenser which returns the vapor to water. Resulting fresh water is moved to storage while the heat removed during condensation is transmitted to the remaining feedstock.

ADVANTAGES OF VC

VVC process is the more efficient distillation process in terms of energy consumption and water recovery ratio. As the system is electrically driven, it is considered a "clean" process. It is highly reliable and simple to operate and maintain.