K K Singh DGM(DX) ALTTC Ghaziabad

What is Broadband Access ?
Any data access rate more than 2Mbps is considered as broadband access. As per the recent broadband policy of Govt. of India, access rate over 256 Kbps will come under category of broadband access.

Why Broadband ?
Fast development in information technology field has yielded in applications which are bandwidth hungry. Inclusion of more and more graphics and video content in applications require high speed access to network. Network operators are trying to carry realtime traffic like voice and live video over data infrastructure to facilitate a unified network for all type of traffic.

Where to deploy ?
Broadcaster

Service provisioning

Internet / Telecom Provider

Broadcast Network

High speed Core transport Headend
LMDS WiMAX MMDS WiFi, GSM GPRS UMT S

Pac ket Cor e Netwo rk IP, AT M, MPLS

Node Access
POT S I SDN xDSL fibr e HF C FTT H

User Terminal

Broadband Access Options
Different Broadband access technologies can deployed by a network operator depending resources, infrastructure and availability technologies

be on of

Wireline Access
DSL Technology Cable Modem (DOCSIS) Power line broadband access (BPL)

Optical fiber based solutions
Metroethernet, RPR, EPON, Ethernet over SDH

Wireless Broadband Access solutions
Bluetooth, WiFi, WiMAX, FSO, LMDS, MMDS, VSAT/DTH

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
There are various flavors of DSL access over twisted copper (telephone) line.
   

ADSL HDSL VDSL IDSL

Asymmetric DSL (ADSL)
Allows simultaneous access to the line by the telephone and the computer In case of power/ADSL failure, data transmission is lost but basic telephone service will be operational Provides
 

16-640 kbps upstream 1.5-8 mbps downstream

Can work up to a distance of 2.7 to 5.5 kms depending upon the speed required

ADSL Family
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line ADSL Family
Family ADSL ADSL Lite ADSL2 ADSL2 Lite ADSL2 + ADSL2 RE Description G,992.1 / G.DMT G.992.2 / G.Lite G.992.3 / G.dmt.bis G.992.4 / G.lite.bis G.992.5 / ADSL 2 plus G.992.3 Reach Extended 1 MBps 1MBps 24 Mbps 12 Mbps 5.5 Km 6 Km Upstream Rate 640 KBps 384 KBps 1 MBps Downstream Rate 6-8 Mbps 2 Mbps 12 Mbps Maximum range 5.5 Km 6-7 Km 5.7 Km

ADSL
Data Rate - Wire Size – Distance
Data Rate 1.5-2.0 Mbps 1.5-2.0 Mbps 6.1 Mbps 6.1 Mbps Wire Size 0.5 mm 0.4 mm 0.5 mm 0.4 mm Distance 18000 Feet 15000 Feet 12000 Feet 9000 Feet 5.5 Kms 4.6 Kms 3.7 Kms 2.7 Kms

ADSL
Home/Office
ADSL CPE ADSL up to 5.5 Km Splitter Twisted Copper Pair Splitter SHDSL

Curb

Central Office
Data switch

DSLAM
T SPLI TERS

Internet

PSTN

Voice Switch

Customer can have down load speed Upto 6 MB (3.5 KM) and upload speed 640 Kbps. Telephone works even in Case of power failure.

NIB-II Broadband DSL Deployment
Core Network

SSSS

FE

Core router
FE Broadband GigE RAS
• •

NOTE: Items indicated in dotted line boxes are not part of Project 2.2
Content Server

GigE

BB
GigE

FE
GigE

ADM ADM

ADM

FE
igE

SDH RING
ADM B1

Tier2 LAN Switch

G M 0K x 4 ibre Ma k F r Da

Gig E & FE From MDF

Tier1 Layer2 GigE Aggregation Switch

city

ADM

FE

FE

B2 city

FE
Max 10/20 KM Dark fiber 480 Port DSLAM

FE
240 Port DSLAM 120 Port DSLAM 60 Port DSLAM 48 Port DSLAM

FE
24 Port DSLAM

GE

ADSL terminals ADSL terminals

ADSL

ADSL terminals Splitter

ADSL terminals

NIB-II Broadband DSL Deployment
Ex Side

Telco Switch

MDF

Line Side

Normal Line Normal Line DSL Line Normal Line Normal Line DSL Line

DSL Line Normal Line

POTS

Line

Internet

GE/FE

DSLAM

ADSL Services Present and Future
Telco Switch MDF
POTS only

LEX

DSL + POTS

Internet
POTS Splitter

ConventionalDSLAMs MultiService Access DSLAMs/DLC
Legacy POTS only

Internet

Data

V 5.2
POTS Splitter

DSL + POTS

Telco Switch

HDSL
High bit/data rate DSL Can be viewed as equivalent of PCM stream Offers the same bandwidth both upstream and downstream Can work up to a distance of 3.66 to 4.57 kms depending upon the speed required Can deliver 2048 kbps
 

On 2 phone lines, each line carrying 1168 kbps On 3 phone lines, each line carrying 784 kbps

HDSL
No provision exists for voice because it uses the voice band HDSL-2 is proposed as next generation HDSL over single phone line

Requires more aggressive modulation, shorter distance and better phone line

SDSL
Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line Rate adaptive version of HDSL Does not support analog calls Works up to 3.7 kms on 0.5 mm dia cable Affordable alternative to dedicated leased lines SHDSL-Symmetric High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line is an further improvement over HDSL/SDSL and uses single phone line

VDSL
Very-high Data-rate DSL Also known as BDSL Originally named VADSL (A –Asymmetric) but was later extended to support both symmetric & asymmetric Requires one phone line Supports voice & data Works between 0.3-1.37 kms depending on speed

VDSL
Upstream data rate of 1.6-2.3 mbps Downstream data rate of 13-52 mbps Data Rate - Wire Size – Distance
Downstream 12.96 Mbps 25.82 Mbps 51.84 Mbps Upstream 1.6-2.3 mbps 1.6-2.3 mbps 1.6-2.3 mbps Distance 4500 Feet 3000 Feet 1000 Feet 1.37 Kms 0.91 Kms 0.30 Kms

IDSL
ISDN DSL-a hybrid DSL/ISDN solution Works over existing ISDN connection Increases ISDN speed from 128 kbps to 144 kbps

xDSL Modulation
Two types of modulation techniques are used in xDSL Technologies
 

CAP - Carrierless Amplitude and Phase DMT - Discrete Multi-Tone modulation

CAP Modulation
Carrierless Amplitude and Phase
 

Closely related to QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) QAM generates a DSSC (Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier) signal constructed from two multi-level PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulated) signals applied in phase quadrature to one another CAP modulation produces the same form of signal as QAM without requiring in-phase and quadrature components of the carrier to first be generated

DMT Modulation
Discrete Multi-Tone modulation

Evolved from the concept of operating an array of N relatively low-rate transceivers in parallel to achieve an overall high rate on one line The N low-rate information streams are kept separated from one another by sending them over N separate frequency sub-bands or subchannels DMT achieves this sub-channel arraying by utilising the IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) and it counterpart, the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)

ADSL DMT Modulation
256 frequency bands of sub-carriers of 4 KHz bandwidth and spacing of 4.3 KHz. Each sub carrier can support maximum 15 no of bit/sec/Hz. Depending on signal to noise Ratio for that sub carrier a decision is taken How many bits that particular sub carrier can Support. Each carrier can carry 0-15 bits/sec/Hz Carriers 1-6 for voice and guardband
Voice No of Bits Upstream Downstream

16 7 31 32

64 255

15

0

4

25

138 139

1104 276 kHz Downstream Pilot Tone

69 kHz Frequency (KHz) Upstream Pilot Tone

ADSL DMT Modulation

dB Voice

Upstream

Downstream

15 No of Bits Downstream

Signal to noise ratio

0

4 25

138 139

Frequency (KHz)

1104

ADSL2+ DMT Modulation
ADSL2+ Doubles the bandwidth used to Carry data

Voice No of Bits

Upstream

Downstream

ADSL2+
7 31 32 255 512

15

ADSL2
0 4

0.14MHz Frequency

1.1MHz

2.2MHz

Cable Modem
The cable network was designed to deliver TV signals in one direction from the Head-End to the subscribers homes Operators had to upgrade the cable network so that signals could flow in both directions One spectrum is used for the signals that move from the Head-End towards the cable subscriber

Cable Modem
Another spectrum of signal frequencies are used for the signals that move from the cable subscriber towards the HeadEnd By replacing existing one way amplifiers with two way amplifiers Cable Operators are able to separate the upstream and downstream signals and amplify each direction separately in the right frequency range

Cable Modem
In the downstream direction (from the network to the computer), network speeds can be up to 27 Mbps In the upstream direction (from computer to network), speeds can be up to 10 Mbps.

most modem (DOCSIS) producers have selected a more optimum speed between 500 Kbps and 10 Mbps many cable operators limit the upstream bandwidth to 128 or 384kbs

What is a Cable Modem

Broadband Wireless Access (BWA)
Various Technologies are broadband wireless access
       

available

in

Personal Area Network (PAN), IEEE 802.15 Wireless LAN, IEEE 802.11 Metropolital Area Network, WiMAX, IEEE 802.16 Wide Area Network, IEEE 802.20 LMDS, MMDS 3G Cellular Mibile network Free Space Optics (FSO) VSAT and DTH based satellite access

Wireless Personal Area Network Bluetooth, IEEE 802.15
What is Bluetooth ?
   

Wireless LAN technology (10 meters) PAN 2.4 Ghz band with 20+ Mbps speed Spread spectrum frequency hopping “Always on “ user transparent cable replacement Combination of circuit switching and packet switching (good for voice and data) 3 Voice channels of 64 Kbps each

Bluetooth
 A new short-range wireless technology.

 It’s designed for:  Interconnecting computer and peripherals.  Interconnecting various handhelds.

Wireless LAN/WiFi, IEEE 802.11

WiFi
Wireless Ethernet standards

IEEE 802.11
The Initial release of the standard capable of transmissions of 1 to 2 Mbps and operates in 2.4 GHz band using either frequency
hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) or direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).

IEEE 802.11a
Capable of transmissions upto 54 Mbps and operates in 5 GHz band and uses an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM encoding scheme .

IEEE 802.11b
Capable of transmissions of upto 11 Mbps and operates in 2.4 GHz band and uses only DSSS encoding scheme.

IEEE 802.11g
Capable of transmissions upto 20+ Mbps and operates in 2.4 GHz band

WiFi in metro Access
Wifi was originally designed to replace wired last mile (Indoor Ethernet). However operators are trying to use Wi-Fi in Metro Access environment (Outdoor Ethernet). Although not designed for outdoor use, operators are deploying two different approaches to use Wi-Fi as Broadband Metro Access.
 

Wi-Fi with directional antenna Wi-Fi with a mesh-network topology

Increasing 802.11 Range Using Directional Antennas
802.11 Last Mile Networks Proprietary Solutions
Wi-Fi Subscriber Station With High-Gain Antenna

Internet

Ethernet
Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi
Telco core network Or private (fiber) network

Internal Access Point with hub

Ethernet

Wi-Fi Access Point With High-Gain antenna

Customer Premise (Home, Business or HOTSPOT)

WiFi as Metro Access Mesh Networking
Meshing allows wireless connectivity between access points Proprietary
 

Lower implementation cost Fault tolerance

Solutions

AP to AP Communication is not Standardized and hence are not interoperable, The ratification of 802.11s will standardize the Wi-Fi Mesh-network topology. The 802.11s standard is estimated To be ratified in 2007.

WiMAX, IEEE 802.16
Worldwide Interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) It was designed to develop an air interface based on a common MAC protocol Designed a flexible MAC layer and accompanying physical (PHY) layer for 10-60 GHz and 2-11 GHz It will provide fixed, portable, and eventually mobile wireless broadband connectivity Data rate at the rates up to 75 Mb/s per 20 MHz Carrier

WiMAX 802.16
802.16 Last Mile Networks
WiMAX Subscriber Station
l au kh t ac oin B X to p A iM oint W P

PSTN Internet

POTS

Wi-Fi

WiMAX Access Pt to Multipt.

Internal Access Point with hub

Telco core network Or private (fiber) network

Ethernet

WiMAX Base Station

Customer Premise (Home, Business or HOTSPOT)

WiMAX, Last Mile Wireless Video Broadband
Cellular Mobile Telephony BTS
Enterprise Customer

PSTN

Internet

Cellular backhaul

High Speed Core Network
Mobile Broadband User

Content &  Application  Providers

BBRAS

EnterpriseCustomer /Fixed outdoor

Home User / SOHO

WiMAX Applications
2
FR ACT IONA L E1 for SM ALL BUS INE SS BA CKH AU L for HOTSP OT S

3

RESI DENT IAL & SoH o DSL

E1 L EVE L SE RV ICE EN TE RP RIS E BA CKH AUL

1
Mul ti-Po int BAC KH AU L

ALW AYS BES T CO NN ECT ED

4

802.16
802.11

802.11 802.11

Mobile Internet User POTS/Internet Services

IEEE 802.16 Standards
P802.16a — 2.5, 3.5 GHz licensed bands  Point-to-multipoint BWA system  OFDM and single-carrier system  Near LOS operation and fixed outdoor antenna  Max. Range 50 KMs with typical coverage will be around 15 km with outdoor fixed antenna 802.16-Revd 2004 – 2.5, 3.5 GHz licensed band  Non Line of sight operation, OFDM  5 KMs range with indoor antenna attached with modem providing portability within the house 802.16 b – 5.8 GHz license exempt band  Problem of line of sight operation

IEEE 802.16 Standards
802.16e – 2.5, 3.5 GHz Licensed band
 

CPE Native in mobile PC It will offer Mobility within a fixed service area of the service provider at varying speed The standard is expected to be ratified in later part of 2005 Complete mobility with roaming from one network to other network. Work under progress

802.20 - ?
 

Other Land Based Fixed Wireless Broadband
Several different technologies
  

transmission

Free Space Optics Local Multipoint Distribution Service Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service

Free Space Optics (FSO)
FSO is optical, wireless, point-to-point, line-of-sight broadband technology that is an alternative to fiber optic cable systems without expense of fiber  Speed is comparable to fiber optic transmissions Transmits up to 1.25 Gbps at distance of 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) in full-duplex mode  Uses low-powered infrared (IR) beam sent through open air by transceivers  Uses unlicensed higher frequency  Currently FSO uses two different wavelengths, but expect worldwide standard in near future

FSO Transmitter

FSO Applications
Variety of FSO applications
   

Last mile connection LAN connections Fiber optic backup Backhaul

In next few years, FSO is expected to become major player in wireless world

Local Multipoint Distribution System
LMDS (Local System)

Multipoint

Distribution

   

Broadband wireless technology operating in the 28-GHz and 31-GHz ranges. Now systems are available in 11 GHz range also to increase the coverage area Voice, data and video Data rate in the range of 100s of Mbps Available 2001? Line-of-sight technology

LMDS Applications
Central Office

Video PSTN

Content &  Application  Providers Backhaul for Hotspots

Internet

Data,PSTN Video Access

LMDS Cell Site

Data,PSTN Video Access

LMDS Architecture
LMDS network is composed of cells Many differences between LMDS cells and cellular telephone system
 

Cellular telephone system has mobile users, while LMDS has fixed users Variety of factors affect size of LMDS cells while cells in telephone system are about same size and are based on RF signal traveling from tower to user

LMDS Hub and Remote Unit
28-31 GHz, 11 GHz PMP and PP systems Multiple Mbps to 100’s of Mbps

LMDS Hub Unit

LMDS Remote Unit

LMDS Access And Modulation
LMDS uses two access methods to share frequency
 

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)

Modulation carriers

techniques

vary

among

Most use a form of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), 4-QAM, 16-QAM or 64QAM

Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System
In 1998, FCC allowed MMDS frequency to provide two-way services such as wireless Internet access along with voice and video transmissions Similar to LMDS, MMDS can transmit video, voice, or data signals at 1.5 Mbps downstream and 300 Kbps upstream at distances up to 35 miles

MMDS Layout
Mounted MMDS hub uses point-to-multipoint architecture By using lower frequencies, MMDS signals travel longer distances and provide service to cells that are up to 35 miles across Pizza box (13 x 13 inch) directional antennas are mounted at receiving location Cable runs from antenna to MMDS wireless modem  Converts analog signal to digital and may be attached to single computer or LAN

MMDS Pizza Box Antenna

Second Generation MMDS
Work is underway for Second Generation MMDS

Will use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Stronger signal will eliminate line-of-sight requirement, increase coverage in cell, and simplify antenna installation Speeds may reach up to 9 Mbps downstream and 2.0 Mbps upstream

Fiber Based Access Technologies
Ethernet over Dark fibers Ethernet over Sonet/SDH Ethernet over DWDM Ethernet over RPR Ring Ethernet over Passive Optical networks (EPONS)

Optical Implementations
Internet Data Center

Ethernet over RPR

Data Center

Ethernet over Fiber
Data Center Internet

Ethernet over SDH/DWDM

Ethernet over Dark Fiber
Ethernet in the First Mile over Fiber standards- pt-to-pt (EFMF): 100BASE-LX10 100BASE-BX10-D 100BASE-BX10-U 1000BASE-LX10 1000BASE-BX10-D 1000BASE-BX10-U Duplex fiber physical, Distance 10 km on 1310nm laser Single Fiber Bi-Directional 1550nm downstream laser (provider side) Single Fiber Bi-Directional 1310nm upstream laser (customer side) Duplex Fiber Extended (10 km) 1310nm long wavelength laser Single Fiber Bi-Directional 1550nm downstream laser (provider side) Single Fiber Bi-Directional 1310nm upstream laser (customer side)

Ethernet over SDH

Advantages of Ethernet over SDH
Common platform to carry TDM and Ethernet services End to end performance monitoring with guaranteed QoS for both TDM and Data traffic. Full fault management SDH resiliency <50 ms switching time for both data and TDM traffic End to End management, provisioning and billing Long Distance Coverage

SONET/SDH Digital Hierarchy
Optical Level OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-48 OC-192 OC-768 Electrical Level STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-48 STS-192 STS-768 Line Rate (Mbps) 51.840 155.520 622.080 2488.320 9953.280 39813.120 Payload Rate (Mbps) 50.112 150.336 601.344 2405.376 9621.504 38486.016 Overhead (Mbps) 1.728 5.184 20.736 82.944 331.776 1327.104 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 STM-256 SDH Equivalent

Ethernet over SDH (Efficiency)
Frame relay cannot scale beyond DS3 (44.736 mbps) ATM cannot scale beyond STM-4 (622.080 mbps) due to SAR speed limitations Ethernet rates are 10 mbps, 100 mbps 1000 mbps (1 gbps) & 10000 mbps (10 gbps)– Scaling is not a problem !! Ethernet over SDH on long haul networks is inefficient (see table below)
Ethernet Rates 10 mbps 100 mbps 1 gbps 10 gbps SONET/SDH OC-1/STS-1 OC-3/STM-1 OC-48/STM-16 OC-192/STM-64 SONET/SDH Rates 51.840 mbps 155.520 mbps 2448.320 mbps 9953.280 mbps Effective Payload 50.112 mbps 150.336 mbps 2405.376 mbps 9621.504 mbps Bandwidth Efficiency ~ 20 % ~ 67 % ~ 42 % ~ 104 %

Optimization of Ethernet over SDH
To optimize the transport of Ethernet over SONET/SDH links, two new technologies have been standardized.
 

Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

Virtual Concatenation allows for nonstandard SONET/SDH multiplexing to increase bandwidth efficiency Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) provides encapsulation efficiency and eliminates inter-working Functions if any.

Virtual Concatenation (VCAT)
Virtual concatenation is valid for STS-1 rates (51.84 mbps) as well as the lower tributaries (1.544 mbps/2.048 mbps) Virtually concatenated channels may be deployed on the existing SONET/SDH network with a simple endpoint upgrade. All the equipment currently in the center of the network need not be aware of the virtual concatenation.

Virtual Concatenation (VCAT)
CPE CPE 10/100 GbE GbE 802.1q VLAN tag 10/100

SDH Ring (OC-48c/STM-16)

802.1q VLAN tag

STS-3-7v (155.520 x 7 = 1088.640 mbps)

1 Gbps 7 STM 1 Pipes

Gigabit Ethernet (1000 mbps)

Gigabit Ethernet (1000 mbps)

Virtual Concatenation (VCAT)
The Virtual SONET pipe size may be :  Multiple of STS-1 (51.84 mbps) for high-order VCAT VCAT rates are designated by STS-m-nv for high-order (e.g. STS-1-2v for 100mbps Fast Ethernet) Note: “nv” indicates a multiple n of the STS-m base rate  Multiple of 1.544 mbps (VT1.5) or 2.048 mbps (VT2) for low-order VCAT VCAT rates for lower order are designated by VTm-nv (e.g. VT-2-5v for 10 mbps Ethernet) Note: “nv” indicates a multiple n of the VT-m base rate

Ethernet over SDH (optimization)

Ethernet Rates 10 mbps 100 mbps 1 gbps

Virtual SONET/SDH SONET pipe Rates VT-2-5v STS-1-2v STS-3-7v 2.048 mbps 51.84 mbps 155.520 mbps

Effective Payload 1.984 mbps 50.112 mbps 150.336 mbps

Bandwidth Efficiency 100 % 99.7 % 95 %

Virtual Concatenation (VCAT)
Fas t Ether net (1 00 m bps) Ro uter -A
Fro m OC- 48c/ ST M- 16

ADM
OC- 48c/ STM- 16

DWDM MUX

Fast Et herne t (10 0 mb ps)

Ro uter -C

ADM

2xSTS1 pipe

ADM

DWDM MUX

DWDM Ring

OC-4 8c/ST M- 16 Rin g Fast E the rne t (1 00 mb ps)

DWDM MUX

ADM

OC- 48c/ ST M- 16

Ro uter -B

Differential Delay in VCAT
Individual STS-1’s or STS-3c’s sub-channels can take different paths through the SONET network. This can introduce differential delay. Buffering at the far end is required to align the sub- channels and extract the original frames. The receiving end-point is then responsible for reassembling the original byte stream after compensating the differential delay if any

Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
LCAS is also useful for fault tolerance and protection LCAS has the ability to remove failed pipes from the VCG (Virtual Concatenation Group) The VCG ends up operating at a reduced bandwidth, but the VCG still continues to carry data that is error-free. LCAS also can add an additional tributary to the VCG when the demand increases

Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
Frame-mapped
Need to know the client protocol  Associate a length to each higher frame  Efficient: eliminate the need for stuffing or for block encoding 8B/10B)

level byte (e.g.,

Transparent
No need to know the client protocol  Less efficient; can transmit signal even when the client is idle

Generic Framing Procedure
GFP payload area

2
PLI
Payload length indicator

2
cHEC
Core header error checking

2
Type
Payload type

2
tHEC

0-60
GEH GFP payload
GFP payload

GFP Type header extension headers error checking

GFP combines frame length indication with CRC
 

PLI indicated length of frame, then simply count characters cHEC (CRC-16) protects against errors in count field (single-bit error correction + error detection)

GFP designed to operate over octet-synchronous physical layers (e.g. SONET)
 

Frame-mapped mode for variable-length payloads: Ethernet Transparent mode carries fixed-length payload: storage devices

Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) IEEE 802.17

Resilient Packet Ring - IEEE 802.17
A New Ring MAC Protocol (IEEE 802.17)

Unlike Ethernet over SDH no reservation of resources like (STS-1-5v) etc., Allows Packet Add/Drop & Pass through
In Ethernet over SDH streams are added/dropped & pass through

Effective Use of Bandwidth Ring Protection  Fast and reliable layer2 protection Control Access Protocol  Fair access to ring BW using Cisco’s Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) Protocol

RPR

RPR
Both rings are used to transport
 

User data (traffic) between nodes Control (topology updates, protection and bandwidth control) messages
Control messages flow in the opposite direction of the traffic they represent

RPR has the ability to differentiate between low and high priority packets RPR node has the ability to transmit high priority packets while temporarily holding the lower priority packets in the transit buffer

RPR
Inner Ring Control

Inner Ring Data

Outer Ring Control

Outer Ring Data

RPR Protection

FAULT

Ethernet over Passive Optical Networks (EPON)

Ethernet over Passive Optical Networks (EPON) Pt-to-M-Pt
Ethernet in the First Mile over Passive Optical Networks (EPON) Pt-to-M-Pt Two interfaces to cover a distance of minimum 10 & 20 kms over 16:1 split ratio are developed by IETF P802.3ah. New standards has also come regarding 32:1 splits.

1000 BASE-PX 10: PHY for PON >= single SM fiber and >=16:1 split ratio 1000 BASE-PX 20: PHY for PON >= single SM fiber and >=16:1 split ratio

10 km over 20 km over

EFM Fiber Point-to-Multipoint 1000BASE-PX 10 & 1000BASE-PX 20
1 Gbps, 1:16 split ratio 10 km single mode fiber

Business and Residential access over SMF Reach for Ethernet over fiber increased up to 10/20km. 1Gbps – Available bandwidth shared by up to 64 users An Ethernet based alternative for Passive Optical Networks.

Passive Optical Network (PON)
Passive Optical Networks (PONs)
     

Shares fiber optic strands for a portion of the networks distribution Uses optical splitters to separate and aggregate the signal Power required only at the ends ATM PON – APON Ethernet PON – EPON (Pt to M-Pt) Gigabit Ethernet PON – GPON ( Pt to M-Pt)

Hybrid (Active/PON)

Uses Active Node (powered) and PON to cover larger distances

Fiber loss in PON
• • • Fi ber lo ss per km is 0. 25 dB for1550 nm an d 0. 4 dB 1260 - 1360 nm Wh en t he sig nal is s pl it two wa ys, hal f the power goes one way an d h alf g oes the other . So ea ch dire ction get s hal f the power , or t he si gn al is red uced by 10lo g( 0. 5) =3 dB .
al H
//

f

//
Ha l f

PON link budgets
Link budget (Maximum loss planned) is 21 dB maximum distance without amplification is about 80 km

At 1550 nm, fiber exhibits loss of about 0.25 dB/km & at 1310 nm loss is 0.4 db/km 80km x 0.25 db/km = 20 db

Each two-way split results in a loss of nominally ~3.5 dB of level, assume 4 dB worst case.

Thus, each two-way split costs about 16 km distance for 1550 nm & 10 km for 1310 nm

PON Link Budget
Split 1:2 1:4 1:8 1:16 1:32 1:64 4 8 12 16 20 24 Loss dB Loss Km 16 32 48 64 80 96 End to End Range 80-16=64 80-32=48 80-48=32 80-64=16 80-80=0 80-96=-16

APON, EPON or GPON
Usually 10-20 km OLT

// //

//

ONU

Op tical s plitter (Passiv e No de – power is not req ui red ) 1x1 6 ( 1x2 , 1x 8) 1x3 2 ( 1x4 , 1x 8)

OLT : Optical Line Terminal ONU: Optical Network Unit

Architectures – PON
1550 nm video broadcast (if used) OLT 1490* nm data
// //

//
1310 nm data

ONU

* Data may be transmitted at 1550 nm if not used for video

Architecture – Active Node
Up to 70 km OLT
// // // //

Up to 16 km for 1:16 split
//

ONU

Active Node with processing (powered)
//

Architectures – Active Node
OLT

1550 nm broadcast (if used)
//

//

// // //

ONU

Data, 1310 & 1550 or 1490 nm

//

Architecture – Hybrid PON
Up to 70 km OLT Optical splitter Up to 10 km (Min)

//
//

//

// //

//

ONU

Active Node (powered)

//

//
Optical splitter

//

Architectures – Hybrid PON
Single fiber, 1550 broadcast, 1310,1490 bidirectional data
OLT

//
1550 nm broadcast
//

//

// //

//

ONU

//

Data, 1310 & 1550 or 1490 nm

//

//

Downstream Traffic in EPON
802.3x frame
FCS Payload Header
1

4

3

2

1

1

OLT
3 2

//
ONU 1

//

ONU 2

// //

4

3

2

1

4

//

//
4

//
3

4

3

2

1

2

Maximum 64 ONUs can be configured

4

3

2

1

3

2

Every ONU receives the original Frame which was sent from OLT ONU filters only the traffic meant for that site with the help of an ID Downstream traffic is normally encrypted to avoid security breach

//
ONU 3

//

1

ONU 4

//
4 3 2 1 4

Upstream Traffic in EPON (TDMA)
802.3x frame
Header Payload FCS 1 2 1 1

OLT

//
ONU 1

//

ONU 2

// //

1

2

3

4

//

//

//

2

2

ONUs share the bandwidth in TDMA Fashion when sending the traffic to OLT (upstream) 3 Sufficient gap ( laser off) is maintained between frames from ONUs to avoid overlapping Upstream traffic from one ONU cannot be seen by other ONUs by the Physics of Splitter/coupler

3 4

3

//
ONU 3

//

ONU 4

//
4 4

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