You are on page 1of 18

# AP Physics C

## Montwood High School

R. Casao
Generators and Motors
Generators and
motors are important
devices that operate
on the principle of
electromagnetic
induction.
Consider the
alternating current
(AC) generator, a
device that converts
mechanical energy to
electrical energy.
In simple form, the
AC generator
consists of a loop of
wire rotated by some
external means in a
magnetic field.

In commercial power plants, the energy required to
rotate the loop can be derived from a variety of
sources:
falling water directed onto turbine blades to produce rotary
motion in a hydroelectric plant;
heat produced by burning coal converts water to steam
which is directed against turbine blades to produce rotary
motion in a coal-fired plant.
As the loop rotates, the magnetic flux thru the loop
changes with time, inducing an EMF and a current in
an external circuit.
The ends of the loop are connected to slip rings that
rotate with the loop.
Connections to the external circuit are made by
stationary brushes in contact with the slip rings.

Suppose that the AC generator loop has N turns, all of
the same area A, and rotates with constant angular
velocity .
If u is the angle between the magnetic field B and the
normal to the plane of the loop (the area vector A), then
the magnetic flux thru the loop at any time t is:
m
=
BAcos u = BAcos (t), where u = t and the clock
is set so that t = 0 s when u = 0 rad.
The induced EMF in the coil is:

( )
( )
( )
m
d
EMF= N
dt
d(B A cos t )
EMF= N
dt
d(cos t )
EMF= N B A
dt
d( t)
EMF= N B A sin t
dt

The EMF varies sinusoidally with time.

The maximum EMF occurs when sin (t) = 1 and has
the value EMF
max
= N B A . This occurs when the
angle u = t between the magnetic field B and the
area vector A is 90 and 270.
( )
( )
dt
EMF=N B A sin t
dt
EMF=N B A sin t

EMF = EMF
max
when the magnetic field is in the plane
of the coil and the time rate of change of magnetic flux
is a maximum.

EMF = 0 V when the angle u = t between the
magnetic field B and the area vector A is 0 and 180.
This occurs when the magnetic field vector is
perpendicular to the plane of the coil and the time rate
of change of magnetic flux is zero.
The frequency ( = 2f) for commercial generators in
the US and Canada is 60 Hz; some European countries
use 50 Hz.
EMF Induced in a Generator
An AC generator consists of 8 turns of wire of area 0.09
m
2
and total resistance 12 O. The loop rotates in a
magnetic field of 0.5 T at a constant frequency of 60
Hz.
What is the maximum induced EMF?
max
2
max
max
2 2 60 377
8 0.5 0.9 377
136
f Hz Hz
EMF N B A
EMF T m Hz
EMF V
e t t
e
= = =
=
=
=
What is the maximum induced current?

Determine the time variation of the induced EMF and
the induced current when the output terminals are
connected by a low-resistance conductor.
max
136
11.3
12
EMF V
I A
R
= = =
O
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
max
sin sin
136 sin 377
I sin
11.3 sin 377
max
EMF N B A t EMF t
EMF V Hz t
I t
I A Hz t
e e e
e
= =
=
=
=
The direct current (DC) generator is used to charge
storage batteries in older cars.
The components are essentially the same as those of
the ac generator, except that the contacts to the
rotating loop are made using a split ring, or
commutator.
The output voltage always has
the same polarity and the
current is a pulsating direct
current.
The reason for the pulsating direct current occurs
because the contacts to the split ring reverse their roles
every half cycle.
At the same time, the polarity of the induced EMF
reverses; so the polarity of the split ring (which is the
same as the polarity of the output voltage) remains the
same.
A pulsating DC current is not suitable for most
applications.
To obtain a more steady DC current, commercial DC
generators use many armature coils and commutators
distributed so that the sinusoidal pulses from the
various coils are out of phase.
When the pulses are superimposed, the DC output is
almost free of fluctuations.
Motors
Motors are devices that convert electrical energy into
mechanical energy.
A motor is a generator operating in reverse.
Instead of generating a current by rotating a loop, a
current is supplied to the loop by a battery and the
torque acting on the current-carrying loop causes it to
rotate.
Useful mechanical work can be done by attaching the
rotating armature to some external device.
As the loop rotates, the changing magnetic flux
induces an EMF in the loop.
The induced EMF always acts to reduce the current
in the loop; if not, Lenzs law would be violated.
The back EMF increases in magnitude as the
rotational speed of the armature increases.
The back EMF is an EMF that tends to reduce the
supplied current.

Since the voltage available to supply current equals
the difference between the supply voltage and the
back EMF, the current thru the armature coil is limited
by the back EMF.
When a motor is first turned on, there is initially no back
EMF and the current is very large because it is limited
only by the resistanc of the coil.
As the coils begin to rotate, the induced back EMF
opposes the applied voltage and the current in the
coils is reduced.
If the mechanical load increases, the motor will slow
down, which causes the back EMF to decrease.
The reduction in the back EMF increases the current
in the coils and therefore increases the power needed
from the external voltage source.
For this reason, the power requirements are greater
for starting a motor and for running it under heavy
If the motor is allowed to run under no mechanical
load, the back EMF reduces the current to a value
just large enough to overcome losses due to heat and
friction.
If a very heavy load jams the motor so that it cannot
rotate, the lack of a back EMF can lead to
dangerously high current in the motors wires.
The Induced Current in a Motor
Assume that a motor having coils with a resistance
of 10 O is supplied by a voltage of 120 V. When
the motor is running at its maximum speed, the
back EMF is 70 V.
Find the current in the coils when the motor is first
turned on.
When the motor is first turned on, the back EMF is 0
V.
The current in the coils is maximum and equal to:

Find the current in the coils when the motor has
reached maximum speed.
At the maximum speed, the back EMF has its
maximum value.
The effective supply voltage is now the external
source minus the back EMF.
The current is reduced to:

120
12
10
EMF V
I A
R
= = =
O
120 70
5
10
back
EMF EMF V V
I A
R

= = =
O
Suppose that the motor is in a circular saw. You are
operating the saw and the blade becomes jammed in a
piece of wood so that the motor cannot turn. By what
percentage does the power input to the motor increase
when it is jammed?
The reason an object with a motor can become warm
when the motor is prevented from turning is due to
the increased power input to the motor.
The higher rate of energy transfer results in an
increase in the internal energy of the coil, which is
undesirable.
When the motor is jammed, the current is 12 A; when
the motor is free to turn, the current is 5A. ( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2 2
12
5.76
5
jammed jammed
jammed
not jammed
not jammed not jammed
I R I
P
A
P
I R I
A

= = = =

P
jammed
= 5.76P
not jammed
; this represents a 476%
increase in the input power.
The high power input when the motor is jammed can
cause the coil to heat up to the point where it is
permanently damaged.