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Prepared by: Umi Nabilah Binti Borhan Ashraf Alqayyum Bin Samuri

Saravanan Kumar Seiswaran Pandein Darvindran Kumar Ameerul Naim

Malaysia, products derived from palm oil and its derivatives are becoming actively produced. Most activities involve the substitution of palm-based materials from petrochemical-based material. Plastic industry is one area of interest where polyurethane derived from renewable resource is starting to penetrate the market.

INTRODUCTION Due to the abundant supply of palm oil in

It was found that by substituting half of the raw material with palm oil, better properties of foams were produced. The production of this fine chemical will ensure a sustainable development as raw material is from renewable resource. Besides that, the use of water in the production of polyurethane will help to preserve the environment.

WHAT IS POLYURETHANE?

Polyurethanes are linear polymers produced through a chemical reaction between a diisocyanate and a polyol. First developed in late 1930s, polyurethanes are some of the most versatile polymers. They are used in building insulation, surface coatings, adhesives, solid plastics, and athletic apparel.

WHAT IS POLYOL?
A polyol is an alcohol with more than two reactive hydroxyl groups per molecule.
Most of the commercial polyols are petroleumbased. The structure, molecular weights and functional groups of the polyols play vital roles in determining the properties of the final urethane polymers.

PALM OIL-BASED POLYOL

Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Extracting Extracted Palm Oil

The palm oil is extracted using an extractor machine.

Palm oil extractor


Palm oil extracted from EFB is mixed equally about 50% of palm oil and 50% of polyhydric alcohol. The process of making palm-oil based polyol is blended using polyol pilot plant. These days, palm oil-based polyol has been processed by Malaysia Palm Oil Berhad, (MPOB)

POLYOL PILOT PLANT AT MPOB

Example of extracted palm oilbased polyol

WHAT IS ISOCYNATE?
Isocynate is a salt or ester of isocyanic acid
The most widely used isocyanates are toluene diisocyanate (TDI), That is used in the production of flexible foams

A blowing agent is used to generate nucleating gas


bubbles in the polymerizing or gelling mixture of polyol and isocyanate. The blowing agents for polyurethane foams commonly used are water and low-boiling inert liquids or solvents. Additives also play a vital role in the preparation of polyurethane. These include catalysts, crosslinking agents, fillers (tyres scrap) and colouring materials.

ADDITIVES AND BLOWING AGENT


The ratio between polyol and diisocynate is 1:2 in which the amount of palm oil-based polyol needed to produced flexible polyurethane foam is 40%. This type of foam has and can: 1. higher energy absorption characteristic 2. able to absorb sound 3. mechanical energy better. 4. withstand pressure of 2bar. These are meant for products like furniture, cushions and mattresses.

FOAMING PROCESS
JJ311 CASE STUDY PALM FRONDS\Polyurethanefoamexpansion[www.savevid.com] .flv

REACTION INJECTION MOULDING

Reaction injection molding:

the process is based on a chemical reaction. A reactive liquid mixture (usually polyol and diisocyanate) is injected or poured into a mould where a chemical reaction takes place.
After an exothermic (heat generating) reaction occurs, the finished part is removed from the mold.

RECIRCULATION
The materials are continuously circulated at low pressure by the pumping system and through the mixing head. When the materials reach the mixing head, they are recirculated back to the day tanks and then through the same path again back out to the mixing head. This low-pressure recirculation can be used to maintain temperature, nucleation, and will help keep added ingredients such as fillers or pigments evenly dispersed.

MOULDING
An immediate chemical reaction occurs inside the mixing head, with a continued exothermic reaction inside the mould cavity as process progresses. When processing foams, significant forces created inside the mould must be resisted to ensure the integrity of the part. The clamping pressure required can be up to many tons depending on the size, expansion rates, and the desired density of the part Mounting the mould in a pneumatic or hydraulic press provides the force required to keep the mould tightly closed during the curing process

RIM PROCESS
JJ311 CASE STUDY PALM FRONDS\ReactionInjection-Molding.mp4

END PRODUCT

STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM
stress-strain diagram obtained after quasi-static compression tests performed with a 55-mm initial thickness polyurethane foam sample. Youngs modulus for the polyurethane foam is estimated to be 18 kPa.

STRESS-STRAIN DIAGRAM

Palm oil-based polyols are being derived from natural resources hold the promise of eventually replacing a substantial portion of petroleum based polyols in the polyurethane market. These developments indicate that the future for palm oilbased polyol is indeed very bright and thus making the production of car seat cushion environmentally safe. Car seat cushion made from palm oil-based polyol is also biodegradable and can be made from a renewable source.

CONCLUSION