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TORSION

Content:

Geometry of deformation of a twisted circular shaft

Stress Strain relations

Equilibrium requirements

Stresses and deformations in twisted elastic circular shaft

Torsion of Elastic hollow circular shaft

Combined stresses

Strain energy due to torsion

Yielding in torsion

Schematic representation of power transmission in an

automobile.

Schematic representation of power transmission

in a lathe.

Steps for solving torsion problem:

Geometry of deformation of a twisted circular shaft:

Assumptions considered in the analysis of torsion

problem

Consider uniform circular shaft of isotropic material.

Pattern of deformation will not vary along the length

of shaft.

The C/S of circular shaft which were plane before

twisting remains plane after twisting.

Cont----

The circular shaft must deform such that each plane

C/S originally normal to the axis remains plane and

normal

The plane C/S does not distort within its own plane

The amount of twist is assumed small and Extensional

strains are zero

(a) Circular shaft loaded at ends by twisting

moments Mt which cause a relative rotation

Φbetween the ends;(b) Illustrating that every C/S A

is acted on by a twisting moment Mt

Thin slice showing hypothetical deformation

To summarize,

Circular shaft must deform such that each plane cross

section originally normal to the axis remains plane

and normal and does not distort within its own plane.

All the extensional strains are zero.

Analysis of deformation of slice of circular shaft

subjected to torsion.

dφ

γ θz = r dz (6.1)

Where

dφ

is twist per unit length

dz

Maximum shear strain exist at the outside fiber ie at

r = r0

Analysis of deformation of slice of circular shaft

subjected to torsion.

The strain distribution in the twisted circular shaft is

ε =ε =ε =γ

r θ z rθ

=γ

rz

=0

(6.2)

dφ

γ = r dz

θz

In last class we have seen

Geometry of deformation of twisted circular shaft

Assumptions

Extensional strains are zero

ε =ε =ε =γ

r θ z rθ

=γ

rz

=0

dφ

γ = r dz

θz

fiber ie at r = r0

Stress- Strain relations:

Material : Isotropic

Using hook's law in cylindrical coordinate

(6.3)

Equilibrium requirements:

(b) distribution of shearing stress on C/S

The only resultant of the stress distribution in fig

6.9b is , the moment

(6.4)

is to be taken over the C/S area a of the shaft.

Stress and deformation in a twisted elastic

circular shaft:

(6.5)

inertia

(6.6)

Total angle of twist between the ends of the shaft is

or

EX.1 Given G= 11.5X 106Psi

2) Angle of twist between the ends of shaft

Idealized model

In last class we have seen

Stress- strain relations

Equilibrium requirements

Equations for stress and deformations in twisted

circular shaft

Ex.2

o

Torsion of Elastic hollow

circular shafts

Ex.3

For a hollow shaft

DO=150mm

Di=100mm

L=1.5M

Φ=0.5O

G= 8X104 N/mm2

Find maximum torque that can be

Ex.4 Evaluate poissions ratio from given data

Tension test data

Diameter of shaft =25mm

Length = 200mm

Elongation = .0975 mm

Load = 50KN

Torsion test data

Twisting deformation = 1.430

Length = 200mm

Twisting moment = 400 N-m

In the last class, we have seen

Hollow shaft are much stronger than solid circular

shaft in torsion for same C/S area

Wall thickness of hollow shaft should be chosen

judiciously

Stress analysis in torsion; combined

stresses:

Stress component are determined in r,θ,z set

convenient way to determine stress component

is mohrs circle

From mohrs circle the magnitude of principle

stresses σ1(Tensile)&σ2(compressive) can be

found out

Mohrs circle for stress for element of shaft in

torsion

The principle stresses in torsion are equal, tension and

compression acting on faces inclined at 45° to the axis

of the shaft.

A circular shaft is often subjected to longitudinal

and bending deformation in addition to torsion

We are aware of simple axial loading ( Tensile

or compressive)

Thus we are equipped to consider combined

stress problem resulting from axial loading

combined with torsion

This is illustrated with some examples followed

Ex. 5

= Combined state

Of stress

Combined stress due to torsion and tension

Strain energy due to torsion:

(5.17)

Castigliano’s theorem:

∂U

δi = - - - - - - (2.12)

∂Pi

Ex. 6: Find the deflection and hence spring

constant for spring.

THE ONSET OF YIELDING IN TORSION

Criterion for the initiation of yielding in metals.

In order to apply either criterion it is necessary to

obtain the yield stress in uniaxial tension.

compute effective stress according to the

criterion applied.

compare effective stress with yield stress.

Mises Yield Criterion:

In Torsion, According

to Mises Yield criterion

Tresca or maximum shear stress criterion

In Torsion, According to

Tresca criterion

Ex. 7

For a compound shaft d = 60mm

Aluminium B C

Brass

A

Mt

1.25m 1m

• Total angle of twist shall not exceed 10

• Allowable shear stress should not exceed the value

calculated according to maximum shear stress

criterion.

Given YAlu= 160 N/mm2

YBr = 120N/mm2

GAlu = 3*104 N/mm2

GBr= 3.5* 10 4 N/mm2

Ans:

Maximum allowable torque = 0.3162 * 106Nmm

Ex.8

Referring to Ex. 6.10 (Crandle) Find the

twisting couples at the end of the shaft?

Ex. 9

Referring to Ex. 6.10 (Crandle) What

relation must hold between the diameters,

lengths and Moduli of the two materials?

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