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Chapter 6

TORSION
Content:
Geometry of deformation of a twisted circular shaft
Stress Strain relations
Equilibrium requirements
Stresses and deformations in twisted elastic circular shaft
Torsion of Elastic hollow circular shaft
Combined stresses
Strain energy due to torsion
Yielding in torsion
Schematic representation of power transmission in an
automobile.
Schematic representation of power transmission
in a lathe.
Steps for solving torsion problem:

 Examine the geometric behavior of twisted shaft

 stress strain relations are incorporated

The conditions of equilibrium are applied


Geometry of deformation of a twisted circular shaft:
Assumptions considered in the analysis of torsion
problem
 Consider uniform circular shaft of isotropic material.
 Pattern of deformation will not vary along the length
of shaft.
 The C/S of circular shaft which were plane before
twisting remains plane after twisting.

Cont----
The circular shaft must deform such that each plane
C/S originally normal to the axis remains plane and
normal
The plane C/S does not distort within its own plane
The amount of twist is assumed small and Extensional
strains are zero
(a) Circular shaft loaded at ends by twisting
moments Mt which cause a relative rotation
Φbetween the ends;(b) Illustrating that every C/S A
is acted on by a twisting moment Mt
Thin slice showing hypothetical deformation
To summarize,
Circular shaft must deform such that each plane cross
section originally normal to the axis remains plane
and normal and does not distort within its own plane.
All the extensional strains are zero.
Analysis of deformation of slice of circular shaft
subjected to torsion.

γ θz = r dz (6.1)

Where

is twist per unit length
dz
Maximum shear strain exist at the outside fiber ie at
r = r0
Analysis of deformation of slice of circular shaft
subjected to torsion.
The strain distribution in the twisted circular shaft is

ε =ε =ε =γ
r θ z rθ

rz
=0
(6.2)

γ = r dz
θz
In last class we have seen
Geometry of deformation of twisted circular shaft
Assumptions
Extensional strains are zero

ε =ε =ε =γ
r θ z rθ

rz
=0

γ = r dz
θz

Maximum shear strain exist at the outside


fiber ie at r = r0
Stress- Strain relations:
 Material : Isotropic
 Using hook's law in cylindrical coordinate

(6.3)

Where G is the shear modulus


Equilibrium requirements:

(a) Stress component acting on a small element


(b) distribution of shearing stress on C/S
The only resultant of the stress distribution in fig
6.9b is , the moment

(6.4)

Where da is the element of area and the integral


is to be taken over the C/S area a of the shaft.
Stress and deformation in a twisted elastic
circular shaft:

(6.5)

IZ- Polar moment of


inertia

(6.6)
Total angle of twist between the ends of the shaft is

or
EX.1 Given G= 11.5X 106Psi

Find 1) Maximum shear stress


2) Angle of twist between the ends of shaft
Idealized model
In last class we have seen
Stress- strain relations
Equilibrium requirements
Equations for stress and deformations in twisted
circular shaft
Ex.2

o
Torsion of Elastic hollow
circular shafts

Stress distribution in elastic hollow circular shaft


Ex.3
For a hollow shaft
DO=150mm
Di=100mm
L=1.5M
Φ=0.5O
G= 8X104 N/mm2
Find maximum torque that can be
Ex.4 Evaluate poissions ratio from given data
Tension test data
Diameter of shaft =25mm
Length = 200mm
Elongation = .0975 mm
Load = 50KN
Torsion test data
Twisting deformation = 1.430
Length = 200mm
Twisting moment = 400 N-m
In the last class, we have seen
Hollow shaft are much stronger than solid circular
shaft in torsion for same C/S area
Wall thickness of hollow shaft should be chosen
judiciously
Stress analysis in torsion; combined
stresses:
 Stress component are determined in r,θ,z set
 convenient way to determine stress component
is mohrs circle
From mohrs circle the magnitude of principle
stresses σ1(Tensile)&σ2(compressive) can be
found out
Mohrs circle for stress for element of shaft in
torsion
The principle stresses in torsion are equal, tension and
compression acting on faces inclined at 45° to the axis
of the shaft.
 A circular shaft is often subjected to longitudinal
and bending deformation in addition to torsion
 We are aware of simple axial loading ( Tensile
or compressive)
 Thus we are equipped to consider combined
stress problem resulting from axial loading
combined with torsion
 This is illustrated with some examples followed
Ex. 5

= Combined state
Of stress
Combined stress due to torsion and tension
Strain energy due to torsion:

(5.17)

Castigliano’s theorem:

∂U
δi = - - - - - - (2.12)
∂Pi
Ex. 6: Find the deflection and hence spring
constant for spring.
THE ONSET OF YIELDING IN TORSION
 Criterion for the initiation of yielding in metals.
In order to apply either criterion it is necessary to
obtain the yield stress in uniaxial tension.
 compute effective stress according to the
criterion applied.
 compare effective stress with yield stress.
Mises Yield Criterion:

In Torsion, According
to Mises Yield criterion
Tresca or maximum shear stress criterion

In Torsion, According to
Tresca criterion
Ex. 7
For a compound shaft d = 60mm

Aluminium B C
Brass
A
Mt

1.25m 1m

Find the maximum torque that can be applied at c if


• Total angle of twist shall not exceed 10
• Allowable shear stress should not exceed the value
calculated according to maximum shear stress
criterion.
Given YAlu= 160 N/mm2
YBr = 120N/mm2
GAlu = 3*104 N/mm2
GBr= 3.5* 10 4 N/mm2
Ans:
Maximum allowable torque = 0.3162 * 106Nmm
Ex.8
Referring to Ex. 6.10 (Crandle) Find the
twisting couples at the end of the shaft?
Ex. 9
Referring to Ex. 6.10 (Crandle) What
relation must hold between the diameters,
lengths and Moduli of the two materials?