Ch apter Ni ne

Measurement and Scaling: Noncomparative Scaling Techniques

© 2007 Prentice Hall


Ch apter O utl ine
1) Overview 2) Noncomparative Scaling Techniques 3) Continuous Rating Scale 4) Itemized Rating Scale i. ii. Likert Scale Semantic Differential Scale

iii. Stapel Scale
© 2007 Prentice Hall 9-2

Cha pter Ou tl ine
5) Noncomparative Itemized Rating Scale Decisions i. Number of Scale Categories

ii. Balanced Vs. Unbalanced Scales iii. Odd or Even Number of Categories iv. Forced Vs. Non-forced Scales v. Nature and Degree of Verbal Description vi. Physical Form or Configuration 6) Multi-item Scales
© 2007 Prentice Hall 9-3

Cha pter Ou tl ine
7) Scale Evaluation i. ii. Measurement Accuracy Reliability

iii. Validity iv. Relationship between Reliability and Validity v. Generalizability
Reliable? Valid?

8) Choosing a Scaling Technique 9) Mathematically Derived Scales


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Cha pter Ou tl ine
10) International Marketing Research 11) Ethics in Marketing Research 12) Summary

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Nonc ompa ra ti ve S cali ng Te ch ni qu es

Respondents evaluate only one object at a time, and for this reason non-comparative scales are often referred to as monadic scales. Non-comparative techniques consist of continuous and itemized rating scales.

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Co nti nuous Rati ng S ca le
Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. The form of the continuous scale may vary considerably.
How would you rate Sears as a department store? Version 1 Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Probably the best Version 2 Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --Probably the best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Version 3 Neither good Very good nor bad Probably the worst - - - - - - -I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---Probably the best 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
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Very bad

RATE: R api d A na lysi s a nd Test ing En vir on me nt
A rel ativ el y new re sea rch too l, the perc ept ion analy zer, pr ovid es con tin uou s mea sure me nt of “gu t rea ct ion .” A gr oup of up to 400 re spon de nts is pre sen te d wi th TV or ra dio spot s or adve rt is ing copy . The measurin g de vic e con sists of a dia l that con ta in s a 100-poin t ra nge . Ea ch pa rt ic ipa nt is giv en a dia l and instru cte d to con tin uously re cord his or her re act ion to the mate ria l be in g te ste d . As th e re spon den ts tu rn th e di als , the in form ation is fed to a com pu ter , wh ich tabu la tes secon d-by -sec ond re spon se pr ofile s. As the res ult s are re corde d by the comp uter, they are super im pos ed on a vid eo scr een , enabli ng the res earch er to vie w th e re spon de nts' score s im med ia tel y. The res pon ses are also stored in a per ma nent da ta file for use in furt her analy sis. The re spon se score s ca n be brok en dow n by ca teg orie s, such as age, in com e, sex , or produ ct usage.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 9-8

Itemi ze d Rati ng Sc ales

The respondents are provided with a scale that has a number or brief description associated with each category. The categories are ordered in terms of scale position, and the respondents are required to select the specified category that best describes the object being rated. The commonly used itemized rating scales are the Likert, semantic differential, and Stapel scales.

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Li kert S ca le
The Li ke rt sca le requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects.
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither Agree agree nor disagree 3 2X 3X 4 3 4 Strongly agree

1. Sears sells high quality merchandise. 2. Sears has poor in-store service. 3. I like to shop at Sears.


2X 1

5 4 5 5



The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile analysis), or a total (summated) score can be calculated. When arriving at a total score, the categories assigned to the negative statements by the respondents should be scored by reversing the scale.

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Se man ti c Di ffere nti al Sc al e
The seman tic diffe re nt ial is a seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. SEARS IS: Powerful Modern

--:--:--:--:-X-:--:--: Weak --:--:--:--:--:--:-X-: Old-fashioned

Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:-X-:--: Reliable The negative adjective or phrase sometimes appears at the left side of the scale and sometimes at the right. This controls the tendency of some respondents, particularly those with very positive or very negative attitudes, to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels. Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either a -3 to +3 or a 1 to 7 scale.

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A Seman ti c D if ferenti al Sca le f or Me asuri ng Self - Conc ep ts, Person Conc ept s, and Product Conce pts
1) Rugged :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Delicate :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Calm :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Comfortable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Submissive :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Indulgent :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unpleasant :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Obsolete :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unorganized :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Emotional :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Mature :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Informal

2) Excitable 3) Uncomfortable 4) Dominating 5) Thrifty 6) Pleasant 7) Contemporary 8) Organized 9) Rational 10) Youthful
© 2007 11) Formal Prentice Hall

St apel Sc al e
The St ap el scale is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered from -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero). This scale is usually presented vertically.
SEARS +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 HIGH QUALITY -1 -2 -3 -4X -5 +5 +4 +3 +2X +1 POOR SERVICE -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

The data obtained by using a Stapel scale can be analyzed in the same way as semantic differential data.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 9-13

Basic Nonc omp ara ti ve S ca les
Table 9.1
Scal e Continuous Rating Scale Bas ic Charac ter is tics
Place a mark on a continuous line

Ex ampl es
Reaction to TV commercials

Ad vantages
Easy to construct

Dis adv antages
Scoring can be cumbersome unless computerized

Itemized Rating Scales Likert Scale
Degrees of agreement on a 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) scale Seven - point scale with bipolar labels Measurement of attitudes Easy to construct, administer, and understand

More time-consuming

Semantic Differential

Brand, product, and company images Measurement of attitudes and images


Controversy as to whether the data are interval Confusing and difficult to apply

Stapel Scale

Unipolar ten - point scale, - 5 to +5, witho ut a neutral point (zero)

Easy to construct, administer over telephone

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Summary of Itemized Scale Decisions
Table 9.2
1) N um ber of categ ories number, Although there is no single, optimal traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between five and nine categories In general, the scale should be balanced to obtain objective data

2) Bal anced vs. unb ala nc ed

3) O dd/even no. of cate gor ie s If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible for at least some respondents, an odd number of categories should be used 4) Fo rced vs. non- forced In situations where the respondents are expected to have no opinion, the accuracy of the data may be improved by a non-forced scale An argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories. The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as possible A number of options should be tried and the best selected

5) Ve rb al des crip tio n

6) Physi cal fo rm

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Bal anced a nd Unbalan ce d Sca les
Fig. 9.1

Jovan Musk for Men is:
Extremely good Very good Good Bad Very bad Extremely bad

Jovan Musk for Men is:
Extremely good Very good Good Somewhat good Bad Very bad

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Rati ng S ca le C onfig ura ti ons
Fig. 9.2

Cheer detergent is:
1) Very harsh 2) Very harsh --1 --2 --3 --4 --5 --6 --7 Very gentle Very gentle

3) . Very harsh . . . Neither harsh nor gentle . . . Very gentle 4) ____ Very harsh ____ Harsh




____ ____ Somewhat Neither harsh Harsh nor gentle



____ Somewhat gentle

____ Gentle



____ Very gentle


5) Very harsh
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Neither harsh nor gentle

Very gentle

Som e Unique Ra ti ng Scale Conf igura tio ns
Fig. 9.3 Thermometer Scale Instructions: Please indicate how much you like McDonald’s hamburgers by coloring in the thermometer. Start at the bottom and color up to the temperature level that best indicates how strong your preference is. Form: Like very 100 75 much Dislike very much
50 25 0

Smiling Face Scale Instructions: Please point to the face that shows how much you like the Barbie Doll. If you do not like the Barbie Doll at all, you would point to Face 1. If you liked it very much, you would point to Face 5. Form:
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Some Co mm on ly U sed Scales in Ma rk eting
Table 9.3
Bad Not Important Dissatisfied Probably Will Not Buy Rarely Neither Bad Nor Good Neutral Good Important Very Good Very Important Very Satisfied Definitely Will Buy Very Often

Attitude Importance Satisfaction Purchase Intent Purchase Freq Very Bad Not all All Important Very Dissatisfied Definitely will Not Buy Never

Neither Dissat Nor Satisfied Satisfied Might or Might Not Buy Sometimes Probably Will Buy Often

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De velo pm ent of a Mul ti-i tem S ca le
Fig. 9.4
De vel op T he ory Ge nerat e Ini tial Poo l of It em s: T heory , Sec ond ary Dat a, a nd Qual it ative R esea rch Sel ect a Red uc ed Set of It em s Based on Quali tat ive Jud geme nt Collec t Dat a fr om a L arg e Pret est Sam ple St atist ica l A nalysis Dev elop Puri fi ed Scal e Col lec t More Dat a fro m a Diff erent Sam ple Eval uat e Scal e Rel iab il ity, Vali dity, and Generali zab ility Fi na l Scal e
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Sca le E va lua ti on
Fig. 9.5 Scale Evaluation




Test/ Retest

Alternative Forms

Internal Consistency





Discriminant Nomological

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Mea su remen t Ac cu ra cy
The true sco re mo del provides a framework for understanding the accuracy of measurement. XO = XT + XS + XR where XO = the observed score or measurement XT = the true score of the characteristic XS = systematic error XR = random error
© 2007 Prentice Hall 9-22

Pot ent ial So urces of Er ror on Mea sure me nt
Fig. 9.6
1) Other relatively stable characteristics of the individual that influence the test score, such as intelligence, social desirability, and education. 2) Short-term or transient personal factors, such as health, emotions, and fatigue. 3) Situational factors, such as the presence of other people, noise, and distractions. 4) Sampling of items included in the scale: addition, deletion, or changes in the scale items. 5) Lack of clarity of the scale, including the instructions or the items themselves. 6) Mechanical factors, such as poor printing, overcrowding items in the questionnaire, and poor design. 7) Administration of the scale, such as differences among interviewers. 8) Analysis factors, such as differences in scoring and statistical analysis.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 9-23

Rel iabi lity

Rel iabi lit y can be defined as the extent to which measures are free from random error, XR . If XR = 0, the measure is perfectly reliable. In test -ret est rel iab il it y, respondents are administered identical sets of scale items at two different times and the degree of similarity between the two measurements is determined. In al te rna tiv e- forms r eli ab il ity , two equivalent forms of the scale are constructed and the same respondents are measured at two different times, with a different form being used each time.

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Rel iabi lity

In ter nal co nsi stency rel ia bi li ty determines the extent to which different parts of a summated scale are consistent in what they indicate about the characteristic being measured. In sp li t-ha lf r eli ab il ity , the items on the scale are divided into two halves and the resulting half scores are correlated. The co efficien t al pha, or Cronbach's alpha, is the average of all possible split-half coefficients resulting from different ways of splitting the scale items. This coefficient varies from 0 to 1, and a value of 0.6 or less generally indicates unsatisfactory internal consistency reliability.

© 2007 Prentice Hall

Va lidi ty

The vali dity of a scale may be defined as the extent to which differences in observed scale scores reflect true differences among objects on the characteristic being measured, rather than systematic or random error. Perfect validity requires that there be no measurement error (XO = XT, XR = 0, XS = 0). Co nten t va li dit y is a subjective but systematic evaluation of how well the content of a scale represents the measurement task at hand. Cr it eri on va lid it y reflects whether a scale performs as expected in relation to other variables selected (criterion variables) as meaningful criteria.

© 2007 Prentice Hall

Va lidi ty

Co nst ruct v al idi ty addresses the question of what construct or characteristic the scale is, in fact, measuring. Construct validity includes convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity. Co nver gen t val idi ty is the extent to which the scale correlates positively with other measures of the same construct. Discr iminan t va li dit y is the extent to which a measure does not correlate with other constructs from which it is supposed to differ. Nomo logical val id ity is the extent to which the scale correlates in theoretically predicted ways with measures of different but related constructs.

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Rel ati onsh ip Between and Va lidi ty

Reli abili ty

If a measure is perfectly valid, it is also perfectly reliable. In this case XO = XT , XR = 0, and XS = 0. If a measure is unreliable, it cannot be perfectly valid, since at a minimum XO = XT + XR . Furthermore, systematic error may also be present, i.e., XS ≠0. Thus, unreliability implies invalidity. If a measure is perfectly reliable, it may or may not be perfectly valid, because systematic error may still be present (XO = XT + XS ). Reliability is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for validity.

© 2007 Prentice Hall

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