PAN African eNetwork Project

Bachelor of Financial & Investment Analysis Computers in Management
Semester - I

Mr. Nishant Kumar Rai
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Course Instructor Profile


• • • • • Course Instructor Profile Syllabus review Informal Discussion General Opinion of Students about Course Intro to IT Industry and career prospects

A Quick Survey
 Which of the following have you done? •Used Computer At Home •Used Computer At office •Used e-mail • Browsed the Web/Internet • Bought a product on the Web (what?)


Define Personal Computer as per your Understanding?

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• Total Sessions : 6 • Course Commencement :15th Sep 2009
All African Union Countries

Text & References:
• Self Study Material
• • Fundamentals of IT, Satish Jain, BPB Publication Fundamentals of Information Technology, D S Yadav, New Age Publication • Computer Fundamentals, VRaja Raman • References: • Computer Today, S. K. Basandra, Galgotia Publication

Syllabus Review
Module I: Computer Basics • Input unit, Output unit, • Control unit, ALU and Memory.

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Today’s Agenda
• • • • • • • Computer Basics &Input Output Units A Simple Model of a Computer Characteristic of a Computer Problem Solving Using a Computer Generations of Computer Systems Description of Computer Input Units Other Input Methods Computer Output Units

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• A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.

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Information Age
• Evolving more rapidly than Industrial Age • Will continue into the current century • Greater impact will be felt among network communities

Forging a Computer-Based Society:
• From physical to mental • From muscle-power to brainpower
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What is a computer?
A computer is a special type of electronic calculating device with internal storage (RAM- hardware) capabilities that performs mathematical and logical operations (ALU) on the data through its Central Processing Unit-CPU, (hardware) based on the set of program instructions or language (software) and produces result in the form of meaningful and useful output.
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• A machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away (in secondary storage device) for safekeeping or later reuse • Process is directed by the software but is performed by the hardware.

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Block Diagram of Personal Computer Function

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1. High-speed processing - the computer can process data faster than any other machine with its speed of 1/1M of a sec 2. Repetitiveness - a computer can perform the same operation millions of times in exactly the same way. 3. Accuracy - a computer's high-speed processing gives 99.99% error free results. 4. Arithmetic and Logical Operations - the computer can make decisions based on alternative course of action. 5. Store and Retrieve Information - computers can store information in the memory and use them when needed.
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Limitations of Computer
1. A computer cannot generate information on its own. It must be told what to do, when to start, stop, compute, and make the next move via a program 2. A computer can detect errors but generally cannot correct them on its own. 3. Computers cannot combine ideas or take the best parts or several ideas to come up with a brand new idea of its own. 4. Computers need periodic maintenance support. 5. A Computer is subject to occasional breakdown and wear out .
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A Computer Now…
• Where is it used?
– – – – Bank withdrawal Supermarket and department stores Drive the car E-Commerce

• Do you need a Personal Computer?
– Many Filipinos have one at home – Many more use at work

• Will I use a computer in my future career?
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– Almost every job will involve use of a computer

Computer Literacy
• Awareness
– Importance – Versatility – Pervasiveness in our society

• Knowledge
– What are computers – How do computers work – Terminology

• Interaction
– Use some simple computer applications

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Where Computers Are Used Education
• Teaching and testing aid • Learning by doing • Computer-based instruction • E-Learning and Distance Learning
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Computers in Retailing
• Bar codes for pricing and inventory • Recording and monitoring in Shipping

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Computers in Energy
• Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium • Monitor the power network • Meter reading or ground works monitoring

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Computers for Law Enforcement
• National fingerprint files • National files on criminal • Computer modeling of DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid
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Computers in Transportation
• Cars- automatic • Run rapid transit systems- LRT, MRT • Load containerships • Track railroad cars • Monitor airline traffic

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Computers in Finance
• Record keeping to monitor expense • Banking by phone or on-line request • Credit cards

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Computers in Agriculture
• Crop growth information • Mixed breeding of plants • Feed combinations • Livestock breeding and performance

Computers in Government
• Forecast weather • Manage parks • Process immigrants • Social Security benefits • Taxes • Municipal and City Government Services

Computers at Home
• • • • • Educational tool Record keeping Letter writing Budgeting Drawing and editing pictures • Newsletters • Connecting with others • Digital Entertainment
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Computers in Health and Medicine
• Monitor patients • Electronic imaging • Diagnose illnesses • Assist the disabled

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Computers for Robotics
• Perform jobs that are dangerous for humans • Factory work • Mimic how human works

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Where Computers Are Used
The Sciences
• Research • Simulation

Communication Telecommuting

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Where Computers Are Used
• Airline pilots • Railroad engineers

• Term paper • Record keeping

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Computers are all around!
• • • • • Grocery store School Library Bank Mail

We interact with computers everyday!
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Computer System Components
People Software Hardware Dataware
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• Computer programmer – person who writes programs • Users or End-users – make use of the computer’s capabilities

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• Programs- such as Windows Operating System, MS-Office • Set of instructions that directs the hardware to do a required task and produce the desired results

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Hardware Basic Components of a Computer

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Function of Computer System
Data handling
I P O S Input Process Output Storage

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Input devices
• Accept data or commands and convert them to electronic form • Getting data into the computer
– Typing on a keyboard – Pointing with a mouse – Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code reader – Terminal
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Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other form • May display the processed results • Usable information Monitor or screen
• • • • • • Text Numbers Symbols Art Photographs Video

• Black and white • Color

The Processor
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Converts data to useful information • Interpret and execute instructions • Communicate with input, output and storage

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Two Types of Storage
• Secondary storage long-term storage • Primary storage or memory temporary storage

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Memory / Primary Storage
• RAM - Temporary storage • Holds input to be processed • Holds results of processing • Contains the programs to control the computer and manipulate input into output • Volatile
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Secondary Storage
• Long-term storage • Non-volatile • For safekeeping and later re-use

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Secondary Storage Examples
• Magnetic disks – read and written by magnetic disk drive
– Hard disk – Diskette

• Optical disks – read and written by optical disk drives

• Magnetic tape – read and written by magnetic tape drives
– Primarily used for back-up
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Computer System
• Computer
– CPU – Memory

• Peripheral equipment
– Connected to the computer by a cable – Input, output, storage

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Classifications of Computers
• According to purpose • According to data handled • According to size

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According to purpose
• General purpose- a machine that can be used to process many types of applications. Ex microcomputers • Special purpose- a machine that can be used for a specific application or just ONE application. Ex: Weather Forecasting and Airlines Reservation

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According to data handled
• Analog computers- a computer that manipulates continuous or approximate types of data • Digital computers - a computer that manipulates discrete types of data • Hybrid computers- a computer that can manipulate both analog or digital types of data
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According to size or capacity
• Microcomputer – smallest in size and the cheapest. It can handle thousands of records. • Minicomputer – the medium size computer, bigger and more expensive than the microcomputer • Mainframe – a large computer that can handle millions of data, Support multiple user, does server tasks

• Supercomputer – is a very large computer that manipulates billions of data
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Classifications of Computers
• Use the computer that fits your needs • Based upon
– Size – Speed – Cost – Portability – Number of simultaneous users supported – Available software – Typical use
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Personal Computers
• Other names
– PC – Microcomputer – Home computer – – – – Low-end functional Fully powered Workstations Net computer or net box (Web TV)

• Categories

• Desktop Models

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Notebook Computers
• Portable
– Lightweight – Fits in a briefcase – Battery operated

• Laptop
– Larger – Heavier

• More expensive that desktop models
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Handheld Computers
• Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
– Scheduling – Addresses – Handwritten input – May offer wireless e-mail and fax

• Pocket
– More power than PDA – Runs basic productivity software
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Generations of Computer
The First generation The Second Generation The Third Generation The Fourth Generation The Fifth Generation
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The Computer Age
• Rapid changes • Four generations over 50 years • Trends across generations – Decrease size – Increase speed

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The First Generation
• 1951-1958 • Vacuum Tube
– Heat – Burnout

• Magnetic core memory • Storage

– Punched cards • Machine language – Tape (1957) Characteristics of 1st Generation Computers  Computers big and clumsy  Electricity consumption is high  Electric failure occurred regularly - computers not very reliable  Large air conditioners was necessary because the computers generated heat  Batch processing

The First Generation
• 1951, UNIVAC
 Eckert and Mauchly completed the first commercial computer in the USA – the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)  First computer built for business  Short Code - A set of instructions called Short Code is developed for the UNIVAC. Programmers

The First Generation
• 1951, SAGE - Semi Automatic Ground Environment was developed. • IBM built the SAGE computers and became leaders in real-time applications and used the technology of Whirlwind. • SAGE computers were used in an early U.S. air defense system. They were fully deployed in 1963, that consisted of 27 centers throughout North America, each with a duplexed AN/FSQ-7 computer system containing over 50,000 vacuum tubes, weighing 250 tons and occupying an acre of floor space. • SAGE was the first large computer network to provide man-machine interaction in real time.

The First Generation
• 1952, EDVACElectronic Discreet Variable Computer
– John Von Neumann, designed with a central control unit which would calculate and output all mathematical and logical problems and a memory which could be written to and read. (RAM in modern terms) which would store programs and data.

The First Generation
• 1953, IBM 701
– The 701 was formally announced on May 21, 1952. It was the unit of the overall 701 Data Processing System in which actual calculations were performed. That activity involved 274 assemblies executing all the system's computing and control functions by means of electronic pulses emitted at speeds ranging up to one million a second.

1953, The Whirlwind

– Whirlwind was a large scale, general purpose digital computer begun at the Servomechanisms Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1946.

The Second Generation
• 1959-1964 • Transistor • Storage
– Removable disk pack (1954) – Magnetic tape

– Smaller – No warm-up time • – Less energy – Less heat – Faster – More reliable

Programming languages

– Assembly language – FORTRAN (1954) – COBOL(1959)

Used primarily by business, university, government

The Second Generation
• • • • • • • • • Computers became smaller Generate less heat Electricity consumption lower More reliable and faster Core memory developed Magnetic tapes and disks used First operating systems developed A new processing method was needed. Time-sharing (processing technique)

The Second Generation
• 1963, Mini-computer: PDP-8
– Digital introduces the first successful minicomputer – the PDP-8.  It was about as large as a fridge and used transistors and magnetic core memory. 

1964 Real-time reservation system IBM developed a real-time computerised ticket reservation system for American Airways.
– It was smaller than SAGE and was called SABRE (Semi-Automatic Business-Related Environment).

The Second Generation
• 1964, IBM’s System 360 – It consisted of 6 processors and 40 peripheral units. More than 100 computers per month were ordered. • 1964, BASIC (programming language)
– A programming language was necessary that could be used in a time-sharing environment and that could serve as a training language.

The Third Generation
• 1965-1970 • Integrated Circuit 1. Computers smaller, – Electronic circuit on faster and more reliable small silicon chip 2. Power consumption – Reliability lower – Compactness 3. High-level – Low cost languages appeared – Inexpensive – mass-produced

The Third Generation
• 1965, Gordon Moore
– The semi-conductor pioneer, Gordon Moore (founder of Intel), predicted that the number of transistors that occurred on a microchip would double every year. It became known as Moore’s Law and is still valid today.

• Burroughs used integrated circuits in parts of two computers - the B2500 and the B3500. • Control Data and NCR made two computers using only integrated circuits - the CDC 7600 and the Century series respectively.

The Third Generation
• 1968, Intel was founded (INTegrated Electronics).
– They developed more sophisticated memory chips.

• 1968, Magnetic core memory was replaced by a microchip.
– The first 256 bit RAM microchips, and later the first 1Kb RAM (1024 byte) chips, caused the disappearance of Magnetic Core Memory that was used since the mid 1950's.

• 1969, IBM System/370 replaced their System/360 with the System/370 that only used integrated circuits.

The Fourth Generation
• 1971-Present • Microprocessor – General-purpose processor on a chip • Explosive growth – Digital watches – Pocket calculators – Personal computers – Cars – Copy machines – Television sets • Integrated circuits, smaller and faster • Micro computer series such as IBM and APPLE developed • Portable computers developed • Great development in data communication • Different types of secondary memory with high storage capacity and fast access developed

The Fourth Generation
• 1971, Microprocessor • 1971, Pascal (programming language) • Intel developed the Early programming languages first microprocessor - a – Niklaus Wirth - a Swedish CPU on a microchip. computer scientist – It was called the 4004 and consisted of 2-250 transistors capable of processing 4 bits at a rate of 60,000 transactions/second.
developed the Pascal language in 1971. This language was specifically designed to teach the concepts of structured programming. Pascal remains the most popular language for learning the basic principles of good programming.

• 1972, 8008
– Intel  released the 8008 an 8 bit processor powerful enough to be used as the CPU of a

The Fourth Generation
• 1972, CP/M (Operating system)
– The first operating system for microcomputers was developed by Gary Kildall and John Torode. – Torode developed hardware to connect a diskette (floppy disk) to the CPU.

• MARK-8 Johnathan Titus (a chemist with an interest in electronics) ordered an 8008 processor from Intel.
– He built a computer with six(6) circuit boards which had 256 bytes RAM. • Motorola’s 6800 processor developed a processor
– the 6800. which could perform all the functions of the 8080.

• 1974
– 8080 Microprocessor, was released - it made the development of the microcomputer possible.

The Fourth Generation
• 1975 - January
 Altair 8800- Popular

Mechanics published an article which announced the development of a true personal computer  Developed by MITS (Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems). It used the 8-bit Intel 8080 microprocessor and was made available in a complete kit, including all components and assembly instructions.  256 bytes of RAM was available. 16 slots were left open to include more RAM when necessary.

• Apple- Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs founded the Apple Company . – They built a microcomputer motherboard that used a 8-bit processor. – The motherboard was a single circuit board and held 4 Kb RAM. • 1976, MOS 6502 processor – MOS technologies announced the develop-ment of the 6502 processor, an 8-bit processor with very few registers and 16-bit address bus. – It was used in the design of the Apple II

The Fourth Generation
• 1977. Apple II Wozniak • 1978 Intel’s 8086 and Jobs released the processor that conApple II. It was cheap, tained 16-bit had 16 Kb RAM and was registers and used ideal for playing video segmented memory games. addressing.
– It was sold with a – All x86 processors keyboard, a power supply had to be compatible and included 8 slots for with the set of peripherals. It could instructions, first therefore be used with a used in this wider variety of processor. peripherals and • 1979, Motorola’s 68000 programs. processor which was used in the Apple Lisa

The Fourth Generation
• First spreadsheet :
– VisiCalcDan Bricklin and Bob Frankston of the Software Arts Company developed the first spreadsheet program for use on microcomputers, namely VisiCalc. It was distributed by Personal Software for use on all Apple computers.Word processor – The word processing program WordStar was developed by Seymour Rubenstein's firm MicroPro and became the best seller in the CP/M operating environment.

• WordStar

• 1981, IBM PCIBM announced it's first Personal Computer - the IBM PC - an Intel 8088 processor • 1982, Intel’s 286 processor. Intel announced the 80286 microprocessor.
– This was used in the IBM PC AT (Advanced Technology).

4th Generation
• 1983, Apple’s Lisa
– Apple announced the Lisa, a computer that used a mouse to move a cursor on the screen in order to select commands. The Lisa was the first commercial computer to use a Graphical User Interface (GUI) 1983, IBM announced the PC XT (eXtended Technology). Memory was expanded to 640 Kb and it featured: – 4,77 MHz processor speed – Double floppy disks – MS DOS version 3.3 – Later versions also had 10 or 20 Mb hard disk drives available. – Microsoft released Windows 3.0.

• 1990, Windows 3.0 (operating system)

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The Fifth Generation
• Mid 1990’s • Intelligent computers – Artificial intelligenc e – Expert systems – Natural language
Applications for 5th Gen computers
• Intelligent robots that could ‘see’ their environment (visual input  -  e.g. a video camera) and could be programmed to carry out certain tasks and should be able to decide for itself how the task should be accomplished, based on the observations it made of its environment. • Intelligent systems that could control the route of a missile and defencesystems that could fend off attacks.  • Word processors that could be controlled by means of speech

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5th Generation
• Some technological developments that could make the development of fifth-generation computers possible, include:
 Parallel-processing - many processors are grouped to

function as one large group processor.  Superconductors - a superconductor is a conductor through which electricity can travel without any resistance resulting in faster transfer of information between the components of a computer.  Expert Systems helps doctors to reach a diagnosis by following the logical steps of problem solving just as if the doctor would have done it himself.  Speech recognition systems, capable of recognising dictation and entering the text into a word processor, are already available.
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The Fifth Generation AI – Artificial Intelligence
• How computers can be used for tasks that required human characteristics

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Problem Solving by Search
• An important aspect of intelligence is goal-based problem solving. The solution of many problems (e.g. noughts and crosses, timetabling, chess) can be described by finding a sequence of actions that lead to a desirable goal. Each action changes the state and the aim is to find the sequence of actions and states that lead from the initial (start) state to a final (goal) state.

A well-defined problem can be described by: – Initial state – Operator or successor function - for any state x returns s(x), the set of states reachable from x with one action – State space - all states reachable from initial by any sequence of actions – Path - sequence through state space – Path cost - function that assigns a cost to a path. Cost of a path is the sum of costs of individual actions along the path – Goal test - test to determine if at goal state

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The Fifth Generation Expert Systems
• Software used with an extensive set of organized data that presents the computer as an expert on a particular topic

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The Fifth Generation Natural Language
• Humans communicate with computers in the language they use on a daily basis

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The Fifth Generation Robotics
• Computer-controlled device that can physically manipulate its surroundings
Robot development firm Speecys Corp. of Tokyo developed a small humanoid robot, powered entirely by easy-to-replace, environmentally friendly fuel-cell batteries. THOR on display and demonstration circa 1981

The Fifth Generation VR – Virtual Reality
• Engage a user in a computer-created environment
– User physically interacts with computer-created environment

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