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PAN African eNetwork Project

Bachelor of Financial & Investment Analysis


Computers in Management
Semester - I

Mr. Nishant Kumar Rai

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Course Instructor Profile

09/20/09
Agenda

• Course Instructor Profile


• Syllabus review
• Informal Discussion
• General Opinion of Students about Course
• Intro to IT Industry and career prospects
A Quick Survey
 Which of the following have you done?
•Used Computer At Home
•Used Computer At office
•Used e-mail
• Browsed the Web/Internet
• Bought a product on the Web (what?)

4
Define Personal Computer as per
your Understanding?

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Course
• Total Sessions : 6
• Course Commencement :15th Sep 2009
All African Union Countries

Text & References:


• Self Study Material
• Fundamentals of IT, Satish Jain, BPB Publication
• Fundamentals of Information Technology, D S Yadav, New Age
Publication
• Computer Fundamentals, VRaja Raman
• References:
• Computer Today, S. K. Basandra, Galgotia Publication
Syllabus Review

Module I: Computer Basics


• Input unit, Output unit,
• Control unit, ALU and Memory.

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Today’s Agenda

Computer Basics &Input Output Units


• A Simple Model of a Computer
• Characteristic of a Computer
• Problem Solving Using a Computer
• Generations of Computer Systems
• Description of Computer Input Units
• Other Input Methods
• Computer Output Units

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Computer
• A computer is a machine that manipulates data
according to a set of instructions.

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Information Age
• Evolving more rapidly than
Industrial Age
• Will continue into the current
century
• Greater impact will be felt
among network communities

Forging a Computer-Based Society:


• From physical to mental
• From muscle-power to brain-
power

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What is a computer?
A computer is a special type of
electronic calculating device with
internal storage (RAM- hardware)
capabilities that performs
mathematical and logical
operations (ALU) on the data
through its Central Processing
Unit-CPU, (hardware) based on
the set of program instructions or
language (software) and
produces result in the form of
meaningful and useful output.

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Computer
• A machine that can be
programmed to accept data
(input), process it into useful
information (output), and store it
away (in secondary storage
device) for safekeeping or later
reuse
• Process is directed by the
software but is performed by the
hardware.

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Block Diagram of Personal
Computer Function

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CAPABILITIES OF
COMPUTER
1. High-speed processing - the computer can process
data faster than any other machine with its speed
of 1/1M of a sec
2. Repetitiveness - a computer can perform the same
operation millions of times in exactly the same way.
3. Accuracy - a computer's high-speed processing
gives 99.99% error free results.
4. Arithmetic and Logical Operations - the computer
can make decisions based on alternative course of
action.
5. Store and Retrieve Information - computers can
store information in the memory and use them
when needed.
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Limitations of Computer
1. A computer cannot generate information on its
own. It must be told what to do, when to start,
stop, compute, and make the next move via a
program
2. A computer can detect errors but generally
cannot correct them on its own.
3. Computers cannot combine ideas or take the
best parts or several ideas to come up with a
brand new idea of its own.
4. Computers need periodic maintenance support.
5. A Computer is subject to occasional breakdown
and wear out .

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A Computer Now…
• Where is it used?
– Bank withdrawal
– Supermarket and department stores
– Drive the car
– E-Commerce

• Do you need a Personal Computer?


– Many Filipinos have one at home
– Many more use at work

• Will I use a computer in my future career?


– Almost every job will involve use of a computer
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Computer Literacy
• Awareness
– Importance
– Versatility
– Pervasiveness in our society
• Knowledge
– What are computers
– How do computers work
– Terminology
• Interaction
– Use some simple computer applications

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Where Computers Are Used
Education
• Teaching and testing
aid
• Learning by doing
• Computer-based
instruction
• E-Learning and
Distance Learning
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Computers in Retailing
• Bar codes for pricing and
inventory
• Recording and monitoring
in Shipping

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Computers in Energy
• Locate oil, coal,
natural gas, and
uranium
• Monitor the
power network
• Meter reading or
ground works
monitoring

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Computers for Law
Enforcement
• National fingerprint files
• National files on
criminal
• Computer modeling of
DNA –
Deoxyribonucleic
Acid
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Computers in Transportation
• Cars- automatic
• Run rapid transit systems- LRT, MRT
• Load containerships
• Track railroad cars
• Monitor airline traffic

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Computers in Finance

• Record keeping to monitor expense

• Banking by phone or on-line request

• Credit cards

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Computers in Agriculture
• Crop growth • Feed combinations
information • Livestock breeding
• Mixed breeding of and performance
plants
Computers in Government
• Forecast weather
• Manage parks
• Process immigrants
• Social Security benefits
• Taxes
• Municipal and City Government Services
Computers at Home
• Educational tool
• Record keeping
• Letter writing
• Budgeting
• Drawing and editing
pictures
• Newsletters
• Connecting with others
• Digital Entertainment
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Computers in Health and
Medicine
• Monitor patients

• Electronic imaging

• Diagnose illnesses
• Assist the disabled

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Computers for Robotics
• Perform jobs that are dangerous for
humans
• Factory work
• Mimic how human works

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Where Computers Are Used
The Sciences
• Research
• Simulation Connectivity
Communication
Telecommuting

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Where Computers Are Used
Training
• Airline pilots
• Railroad engineers Paperwork
• Term paper
• Record keeping

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Computers are all around!
• Grocery store
• School
• Library
• Bank
• Mail

We interact with computers


everyday!
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Computer System Components

People

Software

Hardware

Dataware

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People

• Computer programmer – person who


writes programs

• Users or End-users – make use of


the computer’s capabilities

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Software

• Programs- such as Windows


Operating System, MS-Office

• Set of instructions that directs the


hardware to do a required task and
produce the desired results

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Hardware
Basic Components of a
Computer

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Function of Computer System

Data handling
I Input
P Process
O Output
S Storage

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Input devices
• Accept data or commands and convert
them to electronic form
• Getting data into the computer
– Typing on a keyboard
– Pointing with a mouse
– Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code
reader
– Terminal

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Output devices
• Convert from electronic form to some other
form
• May display the processed results
• Usable information
Monitor or screen Printer
• Text • Black and white
• Numbers • Color
• Symbols
• Art
• Photographs
• Video
The Processor
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
• Converts data to useful information
• Interpret and execute instructions
• Communicate with input, output and
storage

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Two Types of Storage
• Secondary storage
long-term storage

• Primary storage or memory


temporary storage

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Memory / Primary Storage
• RAM - Temporary storage
• Holds input to be processed
• Holds results of processing
• Contains the programs to control the
computer and manipulate input into
output
• Volatile

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Secondary Storage
• Long-term storage
• Non-volatile
• For safekeeping and later re-use

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Secondary Storage Examples
• Magnetic disks – read and written by magnetic
disk drive
– Hard disk
– Diskette
• Optical disks – read and written by optical disk
drives
– CD-ROM
– DVD-ROM
• Magnetic tape – read and written by magnetic
tape drives
– Primarily used for back-up

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Computer System
• Computer
– CPU
– Memory

• Peripheral equipment
– Connected to the computer by a cable
– Input, output, storage

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Classifications of Computers

• According to purpose
• According to data
handled
• According to size

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According to purpose
• General purpose- a machine that
can be used to process many types
of applications. Ex microcomputers
• Special purpose- a machine that
can be used for a specific application
or just ONE application. Ex: Weather
Forecasting and Airlines Reservation

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According to data handled
• Analog computers- a computer that
manipulates continuous or approximate
types of data
• Digital computers - a computer that
manipulates discrete types of data
• Hybrid computers- a computer that can
manipulate both analog or digital types
of data

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According to size or capacity
• Microcomputer – smallest in size and the
cheapest. It can handle thousands of
records.
• Minicomputer – the medium size computer,
bigger and more expensive than the
microcomputer
• Mainframe – a large computer that can
handle millions of data, Support multiple
user, does server tasks
• Supercomputer – is a very large
computer that manipulates billions of
data
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Classifications of Computers
• Use the computer that fits your needs
• Based upon
– Size
– Speed
– Cost
– Portability
– Number of simultaneous users supported
– Available software
– Typical use
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Personal Computers
• Other names
– PC
– Microcomputer
– Home computer
• Categories
– Low-end functional
– Fully powered
– Workstations
– Net computer or net box (Web TV)
• Desktop Models

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Notebook Computers

• Portable
– Lightweight
– Fits in a briefcase
– Battery operated

• Laptop
– Larger
– Heavier

• More expensive that


desktop models
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Handheld Computers

• Personal Digital Assistant


(PDA)
– Scheduling
– Addresses
– Handwritten input
– May offer wireless e-mail and fax

• Pocket
– More power than PDA
– Runs basic productivity software

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Generations of Computer

The First generation


The Second Generation
The Third Generation
The Fourth Generation
The Fifth Generation

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The Computer Age
• Rapid changes
• Four generations over 50 years
• Trends across generations
– Decrease size
– Increase speed

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The First Generation
• 1951-1958 • Magnetic core
• Vacuum Tube memory
– Heat • Storage
– Burnout – Punched cards
• Machine language – Tape (1957)
Characteristics of 1st Generation Computers
 Computers big and clumsy
 Electricity consumption is high
 Electric failure occurred regularly - computers not
very reliable
 Large air conditioners was necessary because the
computers generated heat
 Batch processing
The First Generation
• 1951, UNIVAC
 Eckert and Mauchly completed the first commercial computer in the
USA – the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)
 First computer built for business
 Short Code - A set of instructions called Short Code is developed
for the UNIVAC. Programmers
The First Generation
• 1951, SAGE - Semi Automatic Ground Environment was developed.
• IBM built the SAGE computers and became leaders in real-time
applications and used the technology of Whirlwind.
• SAGE computers were used in an early U.S. air defense system. They
were fully deployed in 1963, that consisted of 27 centers throughout
North America, each with a duplexed AN/FSQ-7 computer system
containing over 50,000 vacuum tubes, weighing 250 tons and
occupying an acre of floor space.
• SAGE was the first large computer network to provide man-machine
interaction in real time.
The First Generation
• 1952, EDVAC-
Electronic Discreet
Variable Computer
– John Von Neumann,
designed with a central
control unit which would
calculate and output all
mathematical and logical
problems and a memory
which could be written to
and read. (RAM in
modern terms) which
would store programs
and data.
The First Generation
• 1953, IBM 701
– The 701 was formally announced
on May 21, 1952. It was the unit of
the overall 701 Data Processing
System in which actual
calculations were performed. That
activity involved 274 assemblies
executing all the system's
computing and control functions
by means of electronic pulses
emitted at speeds ranging up to
one million a second.
• 1953, The Whirlwind
– Whirlwind was a large scale,
general purpose digital computer
begun at the Servomechanisms
Laboratory of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology in 1946.
The Second Generation

• 1959-1964 • Storage
– Removable disk pack
• Transistor (1954)
– Smaller – Magnetic tape
– No warm-up time
• Programming
– Less energy
languages
– Less heat – Assembly language
– Faster – FORTRAN (1954)
– More reliable – COBOL(1959)
Used primarily by business,
university, government
The Second Generation
• Computers became smaller
• Generate less heat
• Electricity consumption lower
• More reliable and faster
• Core memory developed
• Magnetic tapes and disks used
• First operating systems developed
• A new processing method was needed.
• Time-sharing (processing technique)
The Second Generation

• 1963, Mini-computer: PDP-8


– Digital introduces the first successful
minicomputer – the PDP-8.  It was about
as large as a fridge and used transistors
and magnetic core memory. 
• 1964 Real-time reservation system
IBM developed a real-time
computerised ticket reservation system
for American Airways.
– It was smaller than SAGE and was
called SABRE (Semi-Automatic
Business-Related Environment).
The Second Generation
• 1964, IBM’s System 360
– It consisted of 6
processors and 40
peripheral units.
More than 100
computers per
month were ordered.
• 1964, BASIC
(programming
language)
– A programming language
was necessary that could
be used in a time-sharing
environment and that
could serve as a training
language.
The Third Generation

• 1965-1970
• Integrated Circuit 1. Computers smaller,
– Electronic circuit on faster and more
small silicon chip reliable
– Reliability 2. Power consumption
lower
– Compactness 3. High-level
– Low cost languages appeared
– Inexpensive –
mass-produced
The Third Generation
• 1965, Gordon Moore
– The semi-conductor pioneer, Gordon Moore (founder
of Intel), predicted that the number of transistors that
occurred on a microchip would double every year. It
became known as Moore’s Law and is still valid
today.
• Burroughs used integrated circuits in parts of
two computers - the B2500 and the B3500.
• Control Data and NCR made two computers
using only integrated circuits - the CDC 7600
and the Century series respectively.
The Third Generation
• 1968, Intel was founded (INTegrated Electronics).
– They developed more sophisticated memory chips.
• 1968, Magnetic core memory was replaced by a
microchip.
– The first 256 bit RAM microchips, and later the first 1Kb
RAM (1024 byte) chips, caused the disappearance of
Magnetic Core Memory that was used since the mid
1950's.
• 1969, IBM System/370 replaced their System/360
with the System/370 that only used integrated
circuits.
The Fourth Generation
• 1971-Present • Integrated circuits,
• Microprocessor smaller and faster
– General-purpose • Micro computer series
processor on a chip such as IBM and APPLE
• Explosive growth developed
– Digital watches • Portable computers
– Pocket calculators
– Personal computers developed
– Cars • Great development in
– Copy machines data communication
– Television sets • Different types of
secondary memory
with high storage
capacity and fast
access developed
The Fourth Generation
• 1971, Microprocessor • 1971, Pascal
• Intel developed the (programming language)
Early programming languages
first microprocessor - a
– Niklaus Wirth - a Swedish
CPU on a microchip. computer scientist -
– It was called the 4004 developed the Pascal
and consisted of 2-250 language in 1971. This
transistors capable of language was specifically
processing 4 bits at a designed to teach the
rate of 60,000 transac- concepts of structured
tions/second. programming. Pascal
remains the most popular
language for learning the
basic principles of good
programming.
• 1972, 8008
– Intel  released the 8008 -
an 8 bit processor
powerful enough to be
used as the CPU of a
The Fourth Generation
• 1972, CP/M (Operating • MARK-8 Johnathan
system) Titus (a chemist with
– The first operating an interest in
system for
microcomputers was electronics) ordered an
developed by Gary 8008 processor from
Kildall and John
Torode. Intel.
– Torode developed – He built a computer
hardware to connect a with six(6) circuit
diskette (floppy disk) to boards which had 256
the CPU.
bytes RAM.
• 1974 • Motorola’s 6800
– 8080 Microprocessor, was
released - it made the processor developed a
development of the processor
microcomputer possible. – the 6800. which could
perform all the functions of
the 8080.
The Fourth Generation
• 1975 - January • Apple- Steve Wozniak and
 Altair 8800- Popular Steve Jobs founded the
Mechanics published an Apple Company .
article which announced the – They built a micro-
development of a true computer motherboard
personal computer that used a 8-bit
 Developed by MITS (Micro processor.
Instrumentation and – The motherboard was a
Telemetry Systems). It used single circuit board and
the 8-bit Intel 8080 held 4 Kb RAM.
microprocessor and was • 1976, MOS 6502 processor
made available in a – MOS technologies
complete kit, including all
components and assembly announced the
instructions. develop-ment of the
 256 bytes of RAM was 6502 processor, an 8-bit
processor with very few
available. 16 slots were left registers and 16-bit
open to include more RAM address bus.
when necessary.
– It was used in the
design of the Apple II
The Fourth Generation
• 1977. Apple II Wozniak • 1978 Intel’s 8086
and Jobs released the processor that con-
Apple II. It was cheap, tained 16-bit
had 16 Kb RAM and was registers and used
ideal for playing video segmented memory
games. addressing.
– It was sold with a – All x86 processors
keyboard, a power supply had to be compatible
and included 8 slots for with the set of
peripherals. It could instructions, first
therefore be used with a used in this
wider variety of processor.
peripherals and • 1979, Motorola’s 68000
programs. processor which was
used in the Apple Lisa
The Fourth Generation
• First spreadsheet : • 1981, IBM PCIBM
– VisiCalcDan Bricklin and
Bob Frankston of the announced it's first
Software Arts Company Personal Computer
developed the first
spreadsheet program for - the IBM PC - an
use on microcomputers,
namely VisiCalc. It was Intel 8088
distributed by Personal processor
Software for use on all
Apple computers.Word • 1982, Intel’s 286
processor
• WordStar processor. Intel
– The word processing announced the
program WordStar was 80286
developed by Seymour
Rubenstein's firm microprocessor.
MicroPro and became the
best seller in the CP/M – This was used in the
operating environment. IBM PC AT (Advanced
Technology).
4th Generation
• 1983, Apple’s Lisa
– Apple announced the Lisa, a computer that used a mouse to
move a cursor on the screen in order to select commands. The
Lisa was the first commercial computer to use a Graphical User
Interface (GUI)
• 1983, IBM announced the PC XT (eXtended
Technology). Memory was expanded to 640 Kb and it featured:
– 4,77 MHz processor speed
– Double floppy disks
– MS DOS version 3.3
– Later versions also had 10 or 20 Mb hard disk drives available.
• 1990, Windows 3.0 (operating system)
– Microsoft released Windows 3.0.

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The Fifth Generation
• Mid 1990’s Applications for 5th Gen
computers
• Intelligent
• Intelligent robots that could ‘see’
computers their environment (visual input  - 
– Artificial e.g. a video camera) and could be
intelligenc programmed to carry out certain
tasks and should be able to decide
e for itself how the task should be
– Expert accomplished, based on the
systems observations it made of its
environment.
– Natural
• Intelligent systems that could control
language the route of a missile and defence-
systems that could fend off attacks. 
• Word processors that could be
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controlled by means of speech
5th Generation
• Some technological developments that could make
the development of fifth-generation computers
possible, include:
 Parallel-processing - many processors are grouped to
function as one large group processor.
 Superconductors - a superconductor is a conductor through
which electricity can travel without any resistance resulting in
faster transfer of information between the components of a
computer.
 Expert Systems helps doctors to reach a diagnosis by
following the logical steps of problem solving just as if the
doctor would have done it himself.
 Speech recognition systems, capable of recognising dictation
and entering the text into a word processor, are already
available.

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The Fifth Generation
AI – Artificial Intelligence
• How computers can be used for tasks
that required human characteristics

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Problem Solving by Search
• An important aspect of intelligence is goal-based problem solving. The solution
of many problems (e.g. noughts and crosses, timetabling, chess) can be
described by finding a sequence of actions that lead to a desirable goal. Each
action changes the state and the aim is to find the sequence of actions and
states that lead from the initial (start) state to a final (goal) state.

• A well-defined problem can be described by:


– Initial state
– Operator or successor function - for any state x returns s(x), the set
of states reachable from x with one action
– State space - all states reachable from initial by any sequence of
actions
– Path - sequence through state space
– Path cost - function that assigns a cost to a path. Cost of a path is the
sum of costs of individual actions along the path
– Goal test - test to determine if at goal state

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The Fifth Generation
Expert Systems

• Software used with an


extensive set of organized
data that presents the
computer as an expert on
a particular topic

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The Fifth Generation
Natural Language
• Humans
communicate with
computers in the
language they use on
a daily basis

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The Fifth Generation
Robotics
• Computer-controlled
device that can
physically manipulate
its surroundings

Robot development firm


Speecys Corp. of Tokyo
developed a small
humanoid robot, powered
entirely by easy-to-replace,
environmentally friendly
fuel-cell batteries.

THOR on display and demonstration circa 1981


The Fifth Generation
VR – Virtual Reality
• Engage a user in a
computer-created
environment
– User physically
interacts with
computer-created
environment
Thank You

Please forward your query

To: nkrai@amity.edu
CC:
manoj.amity@panafnet.com