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only the lowest buckling load is of interest. note that any structural load affects structural stiffness. 2 . This is analogous to modal analysis where the inertial stiffness is subtracted from the elastic stiffness also producing a zero resultant stiffness. In most cases. A compressive load induces a negative stress stiffness which gets subtracted from the elastic stiffness of the structure. Buckling takes place when. as a result of subtracting the stress stiffness induced by compressive load from elastic stiffness. Buckling can occur in different modes under the effect of different load levels. the resultant structures stiffness drops to zero.MECHANISM OF BUCKLING Buckling refers to sudden large displacements due to compressive loads. Tensile loads induce a positive stress stiffness which gets added to the elastic stiffness of the structure (also called shape stiffness). Slender structures subject to axial loads can fail due to buckling at load levels lower than those required to cause material failure. To grasp the concept of buckling.

3 .MECHANISM OF BUCKLING The cancellation of resultant stiffness can be described by equation: Eigenvalue multiplied by the applied load gives the critical loading The first mode and its associated magnitude of buckling force is the most important because buckling most often causes catastrophic failure or renders the structure unusable even if the structure can still withstand the load in its buckled shape.

Buckling analysis. For this reason. which is more precisely called linear buckling analysis. Nonlinear buckling analysis must be used to find accurate values of buckling load as well as to study post-bucking effects. Those imperfections and non-linear effects very significantly lower the buckling loads as compared to those predicted by linear buckling analysis. 4 .LINEAR VS. re-alignment of applied pressure during displacement or finite displacements prior to buckling. However. linear buckling analysis. and the shape assumed under the buckling load. NONLINEAR BUCKLING Buckling can be thought of as a situation where a very small increase in the load causes very large displacements. does not offer any quantitative information on the deformed post-buckling shape. Some buckling problems that always require nonlinear buckling analysis and can not even be approximated by linear buckling analysis include: inelastic or nonlinear material behavior prior to instability. Buckling should always be considered as potential mode of failure in structure consists of slender members in compression. the results of linear buckling analysis must be interpreted with caution remembering that real buckling load may be very significantly lower than that predicted by linear buckling analysis. Linear buckling analysis just finds the eigenvalues of structure for given loads and restraints disregarding any imperfections and nonlinear effects which always exist in real structures. called buckling load. calculates that load. In fact many structural disasters are initiated by buckling and only the final destruction is caused by excessive stresses in post buckling stage.

critical load Papp . Pcr BLF = Papp Pcr .BUCKLING LOAD FACTOR The buckling load safety factor BLF is expressed by a number by which the applied load must be multiplied in order to obtain the buckling load magnitude.applied load 5 .

COLUMN Model file Model Material Restraints Load Objective COLUMN.000 N compressive load to split line 6 .sldprt solid 1060 alloy edge support 1000 N compressive load Split line restrained in all directions • calculate buckling load and buckling load factor • analyze several modes of buckling Split line restrained in y direction 1.

576 FBUCKLING 1.9*105 MPa I = 208.COLUMN First buckling mode Analytical results FEA results Load factor 1.000 N = 1.576 N 7 .576 * 1.33 mm4 L = 300mm FBUCKLING = 1.576 N FBUCKLING  2 EI l2 E = 6.

I BEAM support Model file Model Material Restraints Load Objective • calculate safety factor to yield • calculate safety factor to buckling I BEAM.sldprt solid Alloy steel as shown as shown 2500N 8 .

sldprt shell 2mm Material Restraints Load Objective ABS as shown 100N vertical load • meshing on faces of solid geometry • analysis of buckling load • calculate static load safety factor • exercise proper support definition • soft springs solution option All legs can slide 9 .PLASTIC TABLE 100 N vertical load Model file Model Thickness PLASTIC TABLE.

PLASTIC TABLE Solid geometry Surface geometry Shell element mesh Buckling analysis results 10 .