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Origin: Manubrium and medial third of clavicle Insertion: Mastoid process Fungsi: memutarkan kepala kepada arash bertentangan, extends head, and flexes vertebral column


 Origin: External occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line and spinous process of C7-T12  Insertion: Anterior border of scapular spine, acromion process, lateral third of clavicle  Action: Elevates, adducts, and depresses scapula

5 .

Deltoid  Action: Abducts(menggera kan) humerus. extension. aids in flexion. and internal and external rotation 6 .

7 .

Supraspinatus Action: Abducts humerus 8 .

Infraspinatus Action: Rotates humerus laterally 9 .

Teres Minor Action: Rotates humerus laterally 10 .

adduction and medial rotates humerus.Teres Major Action: Extends. 11 .

Subscapularis Action: Rotates humerus medially 12 .

and supinates forearm Biceps Brachii Short Head Long Head 13 .Action: Flexes radius and humerus.

Triceps Brachii  Action: Extends humerus and ulna Long Head Lateral Head 14 .

Brachialis Origin: Anterior distal two-thirds of humerus Insertion: Coronoid process of ulna Action: Flexes ulna 15 .

Anconeus Action: Weak extensor of ulna. stabilizes elbow joint in extension 16 .

Abductor Pollicis Brevis Action: Abducts thumb and aids in flexion Palm 17 .

Superficial Layer 18 .Pronator Teres Action: Pronates and flexes forearm Anterior.

Superficial Layer 19 .Flexor Carpi Radialis Action: Flexes wrist and elbow and abducts wrist Anterior.

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Action: Flexes and adducts wrist Anterior. Superficial Layer 20 .

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Insertion: Middle phalanges of fingers Action: Flexes fingers and wrist Anterior. Middle Layer 21 .

Superficial Layer 22 .Brachioradialis Action: Flexes forearm Posterior.

Superficial Layer 23 .Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Action: Extends and abducts hand Posterior.

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Third metacarpal Action: Extends and abducts hand Posterior. Superficial Layer 24 .

Superficial Layer 25 .Extensor Digitorum Action: Extends fingers and hand Posterior.

Deepest Layer 26 .Supinator Action: Supinates forearm Posterior.

draws shoulder down and backward 27 .Latissimus Dorsi  Action: Extends. rotates humerus medially.

medially rotates scapula in abducting or extending humerus 28 .Serratus Anterior Action: Holds scapula to chest wall.

transverse process of upper lumbar vertebrae  Action: Depresses rib cage inferiorly and laterally flexes trunk 29 .Quadratus Lumborum  Insertion: Lower border of 12th rib.

External Intercostal Action: Elevates rib cage during inspiration 30 .

Internal Intercostal Action: Depresses rib cage during expiration 31 .

draws body upward in climbing 32 .Pectoralis Major  Action: Flexes. and medially rotates humerus. adducts.

Pectoralis Minor Origin: Anterior surface of ribs 3 to 5 Action: Draws scapula down and forward and elevates ribs 33 .

Rectus Abdominus  Action: Tenses abdominal wall and flexes vertebral column 34 .

contralaterally rotates and flexes vertebral column 35 .External Abdominal Oblique  Action: Compresses abdomen.

the sacrum and coccyx Action: Principal extensor and lateral rotator of femur 36 .Gluteus Maximus Origin: Upper portion of ilium.

stabilizes contralateral hip while standing on one leg 37 .Gluteus Medius Action: Abducts femur.

Piriformis Action: Rotates femur laterally 38 .

Psoas Major Action: Flexes trunk and flexes and laterally rotates thigh 39 .

Iliacus • Action: Flexes and laterally rotates femur 40 .

Biceps Femoris Insertion: Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia Action: Extends femur and flexes leg Long Head Short Head 41 .

Sartorius Action: Flexes both femur and tibia 42 .

Rectus Femoris Action: Extends tibia and flexes femur 43 .

flexes foot Superficial 44 .Gastrocnemius Action: Flexes tibia and plantar.

Soleus Action: Flexes foot Second Layer 45 .

Tibialis Posterior Action: Adducts and inverts foot and aids in plantar flexion Third Layer 46 .

Tibialis Anterior Action: Dorsiflexes and inverts foot 47 .

Fibularis Longus Action: Plantar flexes and everts foot 48 .

separuh daripada jisim otot hilang .Sistem Otot dan Umur • ATP dan kreatin fosfat berkurang pada umur 80 thn . • Otot akan mengecut • Sel-sel adipos dan tisu penghubung akan menggantikan tisu otot . 49 .