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Unit 1

Overview of Optical Fiber Communication

• • • • Basics of Communication Electromagnetic Spectrum Elements of Optical Fiber Communication System Advantages of OFC.

Basics of Communication
• Communication:
– Transfer of information from one point to another over a distance
• Modulation : Long distance communication is achieved by a process called modulation. • Information is superimposed on a electromagnetic wave called as CARRIER for the information signal. • MODULATING Signal : Low frequency signal • CARRIER SIGNAL : High frequency signal.

Basics of Communication
• Selection of Electromagnetic carrier wave
– Radio Frequency spectrum (3kHz to 1 GHz) – Microwave spectrum (1 GHz to 100 GHz) – Optical frequency spectrum (THZ )

– Radio waves are normally omnidirectional. THE DISADVANTAGE OF RADIO WAVES Radio waves transmitted by one antenna are susceptible to interference by another antenna that is sending signals of the same frequency or band. – This means that the sending and receiving antennas do not have to be aligned.• Radio Frequency Wave – Electromagnetic waves ranging in frequencies between 3 KHz and 1 GHz are normally called radio waves. – The omnidirectional characteristics of radio waves make them useful for multicasting. . – Our AM and FM radio stations. in which there is one sender but many receivers. cordless phones and televisions are examples of multicasting. – When an antenna transmits radio waves. they are propagated in all directions.

microwaves are unidirectional.e. Microwave technology is extensively used for point-to-point telecommunications (i. – Antenna sizes are smaller than at lower frequencies because antenna size is inversely proportional to transmitted frequency. a pair of antennas can be placed aligned together without interfering with another pair of antennas using the same frequency. non broadcast uses). in which the sending and receiving antennas need to be aligned. – Microwaves are used radar technology. – Microwaves are used in Satellite communication – Microwaves are also employed in microwave ovens .. Due to the unidirectional property of microwaves. – their comparatively higher frequencies allow broad bandwidth – high data transmission rates.• • • • • • – Microwave Waves ranging in frequencies between 1 and 300 GHz are normally called microwaves. Unlike radio waves. Microwaves are used in – TV. and telephone communications are transmitted long distances by microwaves between ground stations and communications satellites. Microwaves are especially suitable for this use – more easily focused into narrower beams than radio waves.

. the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth's atmosphere is so great that it is in effect opaque. • The atmosphere becomes transparent again in the so-called infrared and optical window frequency ranges. • Above 100 GHz.Limitations of Microwave • Above 40 GHz – the atmosphere becomes opaque to microwaves – Due to absorption from water vapor oxygen.

Transmission lines • Depending on frequency and applications: Different cables are used: • • • • Two wire line : Flat cable Coaxial cables Microwave waveguides Optical Fibers .

Different Transmission Lines and its Limitations • Twisted Pair Cable: – Limited Frequency Spectrum (1MHz) – Limited data rate • 100 meter cable carry 100Mbps • 5. . local moves. • Advantages: – High availability – Low Cost of Installation – Low cost of Add-ons .5km cable carry 2Mbps or less – Short distance between repeaters – High error rate • Susceptible to signal interferences such as EMI.

Coaxial Cables • Upper frequency limit : 4GHz • Higher the frequency: higher are the losses • Data rate : – Coaxial cable of 185m gives a max data rate of 100Mbps. .

• Data rate should be high • Should be compact • Light weight • Modern optical fiber can carry information at around 14Tb/s over 160 km fiber.Requirement of Cables • Long distance transmission needs low loss transmission line. .

• Modulating Signal : Light signal . • The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information.Optical Fiber Communication • is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending light through an optical fiber.

It is a cylindrical waveguide that operate at optical frequency. It confines electromagnetic energy in the form of light.Transmission medium • Optical Fiber    It is a glass filament which carries light. .


Electromagnetic Spectrum Long electrical Oscillations Radio Waves Micro Waves Light Waves X rays .

Electromagnetic Spectrum Optical Communication uses infrared and visible light frequency region .

6 µm .X & γ rays 193.550 µm 1.bzupages.7 to 0.8 µm 1550 nm Window 1310 nm Window 850 nm Window Visible Light UV.310 µm 0.4 to 3x10 .7 TO 0.4 µm 0. Spectrum Radio waves Infra Red light Optical Communication Frequency 100 KHZ to1 THZ 1 THZ to 100 THZ 176 THz to 375 THZ Wavelength 3KM to 300 µm 300 to 3 µm 1.5 THz 230 THz 353 THz 428 to 750 THZ 750 to 10 7 THZ www.85 µm 0.Frequency Spectrum for Optical Fiber Communication Light is the form of electromagnetic Wave just as radio waves. but with high frequency and shorter 1.

Optical Windows Optical communication is over a frequency range of 176 THz to 375 THz ( Infrared and visible spectrum) with a wavelength of 1700 to 800 nm.5 THz 230 THz 353THz . 1550nm window 1310 nm 850 nm 193.

Block diagram of OFC system • Basic Communication system: – Transmitter – Channel – Receiver The process of communicating using fiber-optics involve the following basic steps: • Creating the optical signal using a transmitter. ensuring that the signal does not become too distorted or weak . • relaying the signal along the fiber. . Channel • and receiving the optical signal and converting it into an electrical signal. Receiver.

Block diagram of Optical fiber Communication System .

– Computer: data already in electrical form .• Information Source – Message source – Transducer • Transducer: – To convert non electrical signal to electrical signal – Microphone converts sound waves into electrical signals – Camera : Images into electrical signal.

.• Optical sources • The fundamental function of optical source in optical fiber communications is to convert electrical energy in the form of current into optical energy. • The main optical sources currently used in optical fiber communications are lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs).

– Such a process of varying light level in accordance with the information signal is called : – INTENSITY MODULATION . – Information to be transmitted is superimposed on light to change the irradiance of the optical source as a function of time.Optical Source • In FOC system : – Carrier signal is light signal.

• Lasers: – – – – – Are more desirable optical source It provides highly directional. Speed of operation is high as compared to lazers Lifetime is less and costly as compared to LED Used for Long distance communication . incoherent light source with a larger spectral width as compared to Lasers and is suitable for short distance communication.Light Source • LED: – LED is a non monochromatic . monochomatic light beam. – Speed of operation is slow.

• Information Channel: – Path between the transmitter and receiver. – Light propagation is modeled as rays and hence light transmission through fiber is analyzed by RAY THEORY – Through channel different propagation effects affect the transmission rate and quality • Dispersion • Attenuation • Loss . – Is a Optical Fiber made of Glass / plastic which carries information in form of light.

• Optical detectors • The information superimposed on light has to be separated in order to retrieve the original information. photo transistor which produces current in response to incident light. • The commonly used detector is the photodiode. • PIN (P – Intrinsic – N diode) • APD (Avalanche Photodiode) . • This process of recovering information from received light is called DEMODULATION • The optical detector performs the opposite function from the source: It converts optical energy to electrical energy.

Photodiodes • Photodiode is a light-sensitive device that converts the received photons into electrons. • The output current of APDs are much higher than PIN as a single photon generates hundred or thousands of electrons in APD. • APD are highly sensitive as compared to photodiode. .

Block Diagram of Optical Fiber Communication .

Drive Circuit • To match the voltage and current according to the requirements of LED/ Laser devices. • The driver circuit should keep low power consumption so that the LED system efficiency can remain at a high level. . • To prevent the drive current from exceeding the maximum rate and further affecting the reliability of the LED / Laser • To meet expected brilliance requirements and ensure the color and brilliance homogeneity of each LED.

LED Driving Circuit • Ib needed is low • Ic = βIb • Transistors do have a limited amount of current handling ability • Which can be improved by coupling together as a Darlington pair (often available in a single package). • Also higher powered switches such as mosfets. can be driven for higher power requirements. .

• Example: • In radio / TV broadcasting : coupler is antenna which couples the signal to atmoshphere. • In line communication: couplers are connectors. • Used to feed (FOCUS) the light signal into the channel.Channel Couplers • Couplers are needed since the source emits light over large angular extent and fiber can capture light within a limited angle. • In Optical system couplers are lenses used to colliminate the light emmited from the source and direct it towards cable or photodetector. .

• Repeater detects the distorted signal. • For weak signal repeaters/amplifiers are needed after every hundred or thousands of km to provide sufficient power to the receiver. distortion. • Use of repeater improves the data rate.Regenerators/ Repeaters • Used to boost the power level of weak signals. • Repeater consists of – Photodiode (APD/PIN diode) – Electronic pulse generator – Light source (LED/LASER) . • Repeater amplify signal so that if the signal level falls below a threshold level due to losses . attenuation. amplifies and reshapes the distorted signal and retransmits.

• CRT for pictures.• Electrical receiver / Signal Processor: – Amplifier : To amplify the detected signal. • Computer or other machines connected to OF system . – Filter: to filter out unwanted signal and transmit only the information signal. • Destination: • Information retrieved in electrical form must be converted into suitable form to be heard / seen / processed – Transducer: • Loudspeaker for audio message.

Advantages of Optical Fiber • • • • • • • • • • Greater Bandwidth Greater Information carrying capacity Immunity to cross talk Immunity to static interference Less Attenuation Greater Repeater Spacing Environmental Immunity Reliable and Durable Small size and light weight Economical .

.Advantages of Optical Fiber • Greater Bandwidth and hence greater information capacity: • At high frequency of an optical fiber. • Twisted pair: few Mbps over 1km • Coax: hundred Mbps over 1km. data rates of 2Gbps aver 10’s of km is achieved.

• Information is more secure. Magnetic field produced by a current carrying wire . • Since there is no cross talk . • OF is not surrounded by magnetic field which is the prime reason to cross talk in metallic conductors which are located physically close to eachother. it is difficult to tap the information.Immunity to cross talk • OF are non metallic conductors of electric current.

.Immunity to static Interference • Since OF are non conductors of electric current. • Immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) that is radiations in space.

coaxial cables.• OF provides low Attenuation: – Attenuation is markedly low in OF than compared to Twisted wire. – Number of repeaters needed are less. gases. • Greater Repeater Spacing: – Attenuation is less hence repeater spacing is more – Cost and complexity reduced • Environmental Immunity: – OF are resistant to environmental extremes (whether variations). – They operate over larger temperature range. . – Transmission loss is less. – Less affected by corrosive liquids.

– OF have less loss. • Economical: – Raw material available in plenty. . – Occupy less space. – Cost is approximately same as metallic cable. – OF cables last longer and are more reliable than metallic cables. of repeaters. environmental conditions. low installation and system cost and improved reliability. less no.• Reliable and Durable: – OF have high tolerance to temperature . • Smaller Size and lighter weight: – Thinner than Coaxial cable / twisted pair.

Disadvantages of Optical Fiber • A small bend on optical fiber causes loss. connectors & core has to be precise. • The cost of fusion splicing is high. • Alignment between fibers . . • Clean environment is required during splicing. • The fault localization is some what difficult. A small dust particle can create high attenuation.