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Stresses in Bending

DR PRAVIN SINGRU
INTRODUCTION
• IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN EQUILIBRIUM, A SHEAR
FORCE ,V & BENDING MOMENT, M HAVE TO ACT
ON THE CROSS SECTION.
GEOMETRY OF DEFORMATION OF A
SYMMETRICAL BEAM SUBJECTED TO PURE
BENDING
• ASSUMPTIONS
• STRAIGHT UNIFORM BEAM, WITH SYMMETRICAL
• MATERIAL PROPERTIES ARE CONSTANT ALONG
THE LENGTH OF THE BEAM & SYMMETRICAL WITH
• A BEAM WHICH TRANSMITS A CONSTANT BENDING
MOMENT IS SAID TO BE IN PURE BENDING
• FIGURE 7.2 B
CURVATURE

• CURVATURE IS DEFINED AS THE RATE OF CHANGE

OF THE SLOPE ANGLE OF THE CURVE WITH
RESPECT TO DISTANCE ALONG THE CURVE.
• NORMALS TO CURVE AT B & C INTERSECT AT O’
• ∆S →O’B ∆Φ, WHEN ∆Φ IS SMALL.
• AS C →B, ∆S →0, CURVATURE AT POINT B IS
DEFINED AS

dφ  ∆φ   1  1
= lim ∆ s → 0  = lim ∆ s → 0 '  = (1)
ds  ∆s  O B ρ
• AD, BE, CF REPRESENT EQUIDISTANT PLANE
SECTIONS PERPENDICULAR TO AXIS OF AN
INITIALLY STRAIGHT BEAM. (FIGURE A)
• FIGURE B, BEAM BENT BY MB APPLIED AT THE
ENDS IN PLANE OF SYMMETRY
• FIGURE C, TWO DEFORMED ELEMENTS FORMED
BY SURFACES A1D1, B1E1 & C1F1
• THE SURFACESA1D1, B1E1 & C1F1 MUST BE PLANE
SURFACES PERPENDICULAR TO THE PLANE OF
SYMMETRY
• IN PURE BENDING, IN A PLANE OF SYMMETRY,
PLANE CROSS SECTIONS REMAIN PLANE.
• EACH ELEMENT DEFORMS IDENTICALLY MEANS
THAT THE INITIALLY PARALLEL PLANE SECTIONS
MUST HAVE A COMMON INTERSECTION POINT O &
BEAM BENDS INTO ARC OF A CIRCLE CENTERED
AT O.
• FIGURE B –
• DEFORMED TRACE OF BEAM IN PLANE OF
SYMMETRY
• CROSS SECTIONS REMAINED PLANE, ORIGINALLY
STRAIGHT LONGITUDINAL LINES HAVE BECOME
ARCS OF CIRCLES.
• SOME LINES ARE SHORTENED & SOME
SHORTENED.
• THERE IS ONE LINE IN THE PANE OF SYMMETRY
WHICH HAS NOT CHANGED IN LENGTH, CALLED
NEUTRAL AXIS.
• SETUP COORDINATE SYSTEM IN SUCH A WAY
THAT X AXIS COINCIDES WITH NEUTRAL AXIS.
• THERE IS DEFORMATION OF CROSS SECTION IN
ITS OWN PLANE, BUT WE MAKE AN ASSUMPTION

• ASSUME THAT DEFORMATION IS SO SMALL THAT

WE CAN USE THE COORDINATES OF A POINT IN
THE UNDEFORMED CROSS SECTION TO PROVIDE
AN ADEQUATE APPROXIMATION OF LOCATION OF
POINT AFTER DEFORMATION.
• (FIGURE A & B) WE ASSUME THAT DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN RADII OF CURVATURE CAN STILL BE y.
• FROM DEFINITION OF NEUTRAL AXIS
• IJ=IJ=M1N1
• STRAIN OF I1 J1
• εX= (I1 J1 –IJ)/IJ =( I1 J1-M1N1)/ M1N1 (2)
• M1N1= ρ∆Φ
• I1 J1=(ρ-y) ∆Φ (3)
y dφ
εX = − = − y (4)
ρ ds
• MINUS SIGN INDICATES THERE IS SHORTENING
ABOVE NEUTRAL AXIS & LENGTHENING BELOW
• EQ(4) GIVES LONGITUDINAL STRAIN AT ALL
POINTS IN THE CROSS SECTION OF THE BEAM
• BY SYMMETRY ARGUMENT REQURING PLANE
SECTIONS TO REMAIN PLANE
γXY= γxz=0 (5)

For all points in the cross section of beam.

STRESSES FROM STRESS –STRAIN
RELATIONS
• FOR LINEAR ISOTROPIC ELASTIC MATERIAL

1
E
[ ]
ε x = σ x − υ (σ y + σ z ) = −
y
ρ
τxy
γ xy = =0 (6)
G

τ xz
γ xz = =0
G
EQUILIBRIUM REQUIREMENTS
• RESULTANT OF THE STRESS DISTRIBUTION OVER
THE CROSS SECTION OF THE BEAM SHOULD
EQUAL BENDING MOMENT MB

ΣFx = ∫ σ x dA = 0
A

Σ M y = ∫ zσ x dA = 0 (7)
A

ΣM z = − ∫ yσ x dA = M b
A
• Equation (7) is made under the assumption that
deformation of the cross section is sufficiently small
so that we can use un-deformed coordinates to
locate points in the deformed cross section .
STRESS & DEFORMATION IN SYMMETRICAL
ELASTIC BEAMS SUBJECTED TO PURE
BENDING
• EXTERNAL SURFACES OF THE ELEMENTAL SLICE
OF THICKNESS ∆x ARE FREE OF NORMAL &
SHEAR STRESSES. AS BEAM IS SLENDER,
σz = σy = τyz=0 (8)
• From (6)
σX=-Ey/ ρ = -Ey dΦ/ds (9)

• EQ(9) IS LONGITUDINAL NORMAL STRESS

DISTRIBUTION IN PURE BENDING OF A BEAM, WITH
MATERIAL FOLLOWING HOOK’S LAW
NEUTRAL SURFACE MUST PASS THROUGH
THE CENTROID OF THE CROSS-SECTIONAL
AREA
y E
Σ Fx = ∫ σ x dA = ∫ E dA = − ∫ ydA = 0
A A ρ ρ A (10)
y E
Σ M y = ∫ zσ x dA = − ∫ E zdA = − ∫ yzdA = 0
A A ρ ρ A
(11)
E
ΣM z = −∫ yσ x dA = ∫ y dA =M b
2
A ρ A (12)

I zz = ∫ y dA
2
(13)
A
• EQ (12) IS KNOWN AS SECOND MOMENT OF THE
BEAM CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OR MOMENT OF
INERTIA OF THE AREA ABOUT NEUTRAL AXIS.
• WHEN BM IS +VE, CURVATURE IS +VE, IE.,
CONCAVE UPWARDS

1 Mb
= (14)
ρ EI zz
Mb y (15)
εx = −
EI zz
Mb y (16)
σx = −
I zz
• STRESS DISTRIBUTION IS LINEAR
• FIBERS ON TOP SURFACE OF THE BEAM ARE IN
COMPRESSION & ON BOTTOM SURFACE ARE IN
TENSION
Mb y
ε y =υ = −υε x
EI zz
Mb y (17)
εz =υ = −υε x
EI zz

γ yz = 0
• Lines in the cross section parallel to z axis are deformed
into arcs of circles & trace of the neutral surface on the
cross section has become an arc with curvature –v/ρ.
This transverse curvature of the beam is called
anticlastic curvature
• Neutral axis is the only axis in the deformed neutral
surface whose curvature is in a plane parallel to the
original plane of symmetry of the beam.
EXAMPLE 7.1
A STEEL BEAM 25 mm WIDE AND 75 MM DEEP IS
PINNED TO SUPPORTS AT POINTS A & B, WHERE
THE SUPPORT B IS ON ROLLERS AND FREE TO
MOVE HORIZONTALLY. WHEN THE ENDS OF THE
BEAM ARE LOADED WITH 5kN LOADS, WE WISH TO
FIND THE MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS AT THE MID
SPAN OF THE BEAM AND ALSO THE ANGLE ∆Φ0
SUBTENDED BY THE CROSS SECTIONS AT A & B IN
THE DEFORMED BEAM.
FIG 7.11
• EXAMPLE 7.2
• FIND MAXIMUM TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE
BENDING STRESSES IN THE SYMMETRICAL T BEAM
UNDER THE ACTION OF A CONSTANT BENDING
MOMENT Mb
• Figure 7.12
STRESES IN SYMMTRICAL ELASTIC BEAMS
TRANSMITTING SHEA FORCE & BENDING MOMENT

• PURE BENDING IS UNCOMMON

• PRESENCE OF SHEAR FORCE MEANS THAT B.M.
VARIES ALONG THE BEAM & MANY SYMMETRY
ARGUMENTS ARE NO LONGER APPLICABLE.
• ENGINEERING THEORY OF STRESSES
• ASSUMPTION : BENDING STRESS DISTRIBUTION
(16) IS VALID EVEN WHEN THE B.M. VARIES ALONG
THE BEAM OR WHEN SHEAR FORCE IS PRESENT.
CALCULATION OF SHEAR STRESS IN A
SYMMETRICAL BEAM FROM EQUILIBRIUM OF A
SGMNT OF A BEAM
• NO EXTERNAL TRANSVERSE LOAD ACTING ON THE
ELEMENT SO THATTRANSVERE SHEAR FORCE V IS
INDEPENDENT OF x.
• ∆Mb IS VARIATION OF B.M. WITH x.
• FIGURE B : DUE TO INCREASE ∆Mb OVER LENGTH
∆x, bending stresses acting on +ve x face of the beam
element will be somewhat larger than those on the –ve x
face.
• FIGURE C:EQUILIBRIUM OF SEGMENT OF BEAM ,
BY ISOLATING PART ABOVE PLANE y=y1.
• DUE TO UNBALANCE OF BENDING STRESSES ON THE ENDS
OF THIS SEGMENT, ∆Fyx ACT ON –VE y FACE TO MAINTAIN
FORCE BALANCE IN THE x DIRECTION.

ΣFx =  ∫ σ x dA − ∆Fyx −  ∫ σ x dA = 0

 A1  x + ∆x  A1  x
(17)

∆Mb
ΣF yx =−
I zz ∫A1
ydA
(18)

dM b
+V = 0
dx
dFyx V
dx
=
I zz ∫
A1
ydA = q yx

Q = ∫ ydA
A1

VQ q yxVQ
q yx = τ yx = =
I zz b bI zz
• qyx is longitudinal shear force transmitted across the
plane defined by y=y1 per unit length of beam , called
shear flow
• ASSUMPTION : SHAER STRESS IS UNIFORM
ACROSS THE BEAM
SHEAR STRESS DITRIBUTION IN
RECTANGULAR BEAMS
• ASSUMPTION: SHEAR STRESSES ARE
DISTRIBUTED UNIFORMLY ACROSS THE WIDTH &
STRESS DISTRIBUTION IS A CASE OF PLANE
STRESS
• CONSIDER A CASE SHEAR FORCE DOES NOT VARY
WITH x, SHEAR STRESS ALSO WILL BE
INDEPNDENT OF x, AND SECOND OF ABOVE
EQUATION IS AUTOMATICALLY SATISFIED INCE
NORMAL STRESS σy =0

∂τ xy
∂  M b y  Vy
− =  −  =
∂y ∂x  I zz  I zz
• INTEGRATE FROM y=y1 TO y=h/2

h/2
V y 
[ ]
2
− τ xy
h/2
=  
y1
I zz  2  y
1

V h  2

τ xy =   − y 2
1 
2 I zz  2  
• Shear stress is maximum at neutral
surface and falls off parabolically
STRESS ANALYSIS IN BENDING; COMBINED
STRESSES

• SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT BOTH ARE

PRESENT
• EXAMPLE 7.5
• INVESTIGATE THE STATE OF STRESS AT POINTS B
& C IN THE TOP FLANGE AND WEB OF THE I BEAM
WHEN SHEAR FORCE V AND BENDING MOMENT Mb
ARE BEING TRANSMITTED.
• FIGURE 7.21
EXAMPLE 7.6
• AN ELASTIC CIRCULAR SHAFT IS SHOWN IN
FIGURE TRANSMITTING BENDING MOMENT MB,
AXIAL TENSILE FORCE P, & TWISTING MOMENT MT.
FIND THE STATE OF COMBINED STRESS.
STRAIN ENERGY DUE TO BENDING

• LONGITUDINAL STRESS GIVEN BY EQ (16), SO

TOTAL STRAIN ENERGY IS GIVEN BY,

2
1 σx
U = ∫∫∫σ x ε x dxdydz = ∫∫∫ dxdydz
2 2E
M B2
U =∫ 2
dx ∫∫ y 2
dydz
L 2 EI zz A

M B2
U =∫ dx
L 2 EI
ZZ
BEAM SUBJECTED TO TRANSVERSE SHEAR
& BENDING

σ2 2
τ +τ2

U = ∫∫∫ dxdydx + ∫∫∫

x xy xz
dxdydz
2E 2G
ONSET OF YIELDING IN BENDING

• σ1 = σx , σ2 = σ3 =0

• Criteriaon for yielding in pure bending is

σx =Y
• For combined stresses, Mises criterion or
maximum shear stres criterion may be
used.
EXAMPLE 7.7
• A CIRCULAR ROD OF RADIUS r IS BENT INTO U
SHAPE TO FORM THE STRUCTURE. THE MATERIAL
IN THE ROD HAS A YIELD STRESS Y IN SIMPLE
TENSION. DETERMINE THE LOAD P THAT WILL
CAUSE YIELDING TO BEGIN AT SOME POINT IN THE
STRUCTURE.