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# Stresses in Bending

DR PRAVIN SINGRU
INTRODUCTION
• IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN EQUILIBRIUM, A SHEAR
FORCE ,V & BENDING MOMENT, M HAVE TO ACT
ON THE CROSS SECTION.
GEOMETRY OF DEFORMATION OF A
SYMMETRICAL BEAM SUBJECTED TO PURE
BENDING
• ASSUMPTIONS
• STRAIGHT UNIFORM BEAM, WITH SYMMETRICAL
• MATERIAL PROPERTIES ARE CONSTANT ALONG
THE LENGTH OF THE BEAM & SYMMETRICAL WITH
• A BEAM WHICH TRANSMITS A CONSTANT BENDING
MOMENT IS SAID TO BE IN PURE BENDING
• FIGURE 7.2 B
CURVATURE

## • CURVATURE IS DEFINED AS THE RATE OF CHANGE

OF THE SLOPE ANGLE OF THE CURVE WITH
RESPECT TO DISTANCE ALONG THE CURVE.
• NORMALS TO CURVE AT B & C INTERSECT AT O’
• ∆S →O’B ∆Φ, WHEN ∆Φ IS SMALL.
• AS C →B, ∆S →0, CURVATURE AT POINT B IS
DEFINED AS

dφ  ∆φ   1  1
= lim ∆ s → 0  = lim ∆ s → 0 '  = (1)
ds  ∆s  O B ρ
• AD, BE, CF REPRESENT EQUIDISTANT PLANE
SECTIONS PERPENDICULAR TO AXIS OF AN
INITIALLY STRAIGHT BEAM. (FIGURE A)
• FIGURE B, BEAM BENT BY MB APPLIED AT THE
ENDS IN PLANE OF SYMMETRY
• FIGURE C, TWO DEFORMED ELEMENTS FORMED
BY SURFACES A1D1, B1E1 & C1F1
• THE SURFACESA1D1, B1E1 & C1F1 MUST BE PLANE
SURFACES PERPENDICULAR TO THE PLANE OF
SYMMETRY
• IN PURE BENDING, IN A PLANE OF SYMMETRY,
PLANE CROSS SECTIONS REMAIN PLANE.
• EACH ELEMENT DEFORMS IDENTICALLY MEANS
THAT THE INITIALLY PARALLEL PLANE SECTIONS
MUST HAVE A COMMON INTERSECTION POINT O &
BEAM BENDS INTO ARC OF A CIRCLE CENTERED
AT O.
• FIGURE B –
• DEFORMED TRACE OF BEAM IN PLANE OF
SYMMETRY
• CROSS SECTIONS REMAINED PLANE, ORIGINALLY
STRAIGHT LONGITUDINAL LINES HAVE BECOME
ARCS OF CIRCLES.
• SOME LINES ARE SHORTENED & SOME
SHORTENED.
• THERE IS ONE LINE IN THE PANE OF SYMMETRY
WHICH HAS NOT CHANGED IN LENGTH, CALLED
NEUTRAL AXIS.
• SETUP COORDINATE SYSTEM IN SUCH A WAY
THAT X AXIS COINCIDES WITH NEUTRAL AXIS.
• THERE IS DEFORMATION OF CROSS SECTION IN
ITS OWN PLANE, BUT WE MAKE AN ASSUMPTION

## • ASSUME THAT DEFORMATION IS SO SMALL THAT

WE CAN USE THE COORDINATES OF A POINT IN
THE UNDEFORMED CROSS SECTION TO PROVIDE
AN ADEQUATE APPROXIMATION OF LOCATION OF
POINT AFTER DEFORMATION.
• (FIGURE A & B) WE ASSUME THAT DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN RADII OF CURVATURE CAN STILL BE y.
• FROM DEFINITION OF NEUTRAL AXIS
• IJ=IJ=M1N1
• STRAIN OF I1 J1
• εX= (I1 J1 –IJ)/IJ =( I1 J1-M1N1)/ M1N1 (2)
• M1N1= ρ∆Φ
• I1 J1=(ρ-y) ∆Φ (3)
y dφ
εX = − = − y (4)
ρ ds
ABOVE NEUTRAL AXIS & LENGTHENING BELOW
• EQ(4) GIVES LONGITUDINAL STRAIN AT ALL
POINTS IN THE CROSS SECTION OF THE BEAM
• BY SYMMETRY ARGUMENT REQURING PLANE
SECTIONS TO REMAIN PLANE
γXY= γxz=0 (5)

## For all points in the cross section of beam.

STRESSES FROM STRESS –STRAIN
RELATIONS
• FOR LINEAR ISOTROPIC ELASTIC MATERIAL

1
E
[ ]
ε x = σ x − υ (σ y + σ z ) = −
y
ρ
τxy
γ xy = =0 (6)
G

τ xz
γ xz = =0
G
EQUILIBRIUM REQUIREMENTS
• RESULTANT OF THE STRESS DISTRIBUTION OVER
THE CROSS SECTION OF THE BEAM SHOULD
EQUAL BENDING MOMENT MB

ΣFx = ∫ σ x dA = 0
A

Σ M y = ∫ zσ x dA = 0 (7)
A

ΣM z = − ∫ yσ x dA = M b
A
• Equation (7) is made under the assumption that
deformation of the cross section is sufficiently small
so that we can use un-deformed coordinates to
locate points in the deformed cross section .
STRESS & DEFORMATION IN SYMMETRICAL
ELASTIC BEAMS SUBJECTED TO PURE
BENDING
• EXTERNAL SURFACES OF THE ELEMENTAL SLICE
OF THICKNESS ∆x ARE FREE OF NORMAL &
SHEAR STRESSES. AS BEAM IS SLENDER,
σz = σy = τyz=0 (8)
• From (6)
σX=-Ey/ ρ = -Ey dΦ/ds (9)

## • EQ(9) IS LONGITUDINAL NORMAL STRESS

DISTRIBUTION IN PURE BENDING OF A BEAM, WITH
MATERIAL FOLLOWING HOOK’S LAW
NEUTRAL SURFACE MUST PASS THROUGH
THE CENTROID OF THE CROSS-SECTIONAL
AREA
y E
Σ Fx = ∫ σ x dA = ∫ E dA = − ∫ ydA = 0
A A ρ ρ A (10)
y E
Σ M y = ∫ zσ x dA = − ∫ E zdA = − ∫ yzdA = 0
A A ρ ρ A
(11)
E
ΣM z = −∫ yσ x dA = ∫ y dA =M b
2
A ρ A (12)

I zz = ∫ y dA
2
(13)
A
• EQ (12) IS KNOWN AS SECOND MOMENT OF THE
BEAM CROSS SECTIONAL AREA OR MOMENT OF
INERTIA OF THE AREA ABOUT NEUTRAL AXIS.
• WHEN BM IS +VE, CURVATURE IS +VE, IE.,
CONCAVE UPWARDS

1 Mb
= (14)
ρ EI zz
Mb y (15)
εx = −
EI zz
Mb y (16)
σx = −
I zz
• STRESS DISTRIBUTION IS LINEAR
• FIBERS ON TOP SURFACE OF THE BEAM ARE IN
COMPRESSION & ON BOTTOM SURFACE ARE IN
TENSION
Mb y
ε y =υ = −υε x
EI zz
Mb y (17)
εz =υ = −υε x
EI zz

γ yz = 0
• Lines in the cross section parallel to z axis are deformed
into arcs of circles & trace of the neutral surface on the
cross section has become an arc with curvature –v/ρ.
This transverse curvature of the beam is called
anticlastic curvature
• Neutral axis is the only axis in the deformed neutral
surface whose curvature is in a plane parallel to the
original plane of symmetry of the beam.
EXAMPLE 7.1
A STEEL BEAM 25 mm WIDE AND 75 MM DEEP IS
PINNED TO SUPPORTS AT POINTS A & B, WHERE
THE SUPPORT B IS ON ROLLERS AND FREE TO
MOVE HORIZONTALLY. WHEN THE ENDS OF THE
FIND THE MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS AT THE MID
SPAN OF THE BEAM AND ALSO THE ANGLE ∆Φ0
SUBTENDED BY THE CROSS SECTIONS AT A & B IN
THE DEFORMED BEAM.
FIG 7.11
• EXAMPLE 7.2
• FIND MAXIMUM TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE
BENDING STRESSES IN THE SYMMETRICAL T BEAM
UNDER THE ACTION OF A CONSTANT BENDING
MOMENT Mb
• Figure 7.12
STRESES IN SYMMTRICAL ELASTIC BEAMS
TRANSMITTING SHEA FORCE & BENDING MOMENT

## • PURE BENDING IS UNCOMMON

• PRESENCE OF SHEAR FORCE MEANS THAT B.M.
VARIES ALONG THE BEAM & MANY SYMMETRY
ARGUMENTS ARE NO LONGER APPLICABLE.
• ENGINEERING THEORY OF STRESSES
• ASSUMPTION : BENDING STRESS DISTRIBUTION
(16) IS VALID EVEN WHEN THE B.M. VARIES ALONG
THE BEAM OR WHEN SHEAR FORCE IS PRESENT.
CALCULATION OF SHEAR STRESS IN A
SYMMETRICAL BEAM FROM EQUILIBRIUM OF A
SGMNT OF A BEAM
• NO EXTERNAL TRANSVERSE LOAD ACTING ON THE
ELEMENT SO THATTRANSVERE SHEAR FORCE V IS
INDEPENDENT OF x.
• ∆Mb IS VARIATION OF B.M. WITH x.
• FIGURE B : DUE TO INCREASE ∆Mb OVER LENGTH
∆x, bending stresses acting on +ve x face of the beam
element will be somewhat larger than those on the –ve x
face.
• FIGURE C:EQUILIBRIUM OF SEGMENT OF BEAM ,
BY ISOLATING PART ABOVE PLANE y=y1.
• DUE TO UNBALANCE OF BENDING STRESSES ON THE ENDS
OF THIS SEGMENT, ∆Fyx ACT ON –VE y FACE TO MAINTAIN
FORCE BALANCE IN THE x DIRECTION.

## ΣFx =  ∫ σ x dA − ∆Fyx −  ∫ σ x dA = 0

 A1  x + ∆x  A1  x
(17)

∆Mb
ΣF yx =−
I zz ∫A1
ydA
(18)

dM b
+V = 0
dx
dFyx V
dx
=
I zz ∫
A1
ydA = q yx

Q = ∫ ydA
A1

VQ q yxVQ
q yx = τ yx = =
I zz b bI zz
• qyx is longitudinal shear force transmitted across the
plane defined by y=y1 per unit length of beam , called
shear flow
• ASSUMPTION : SHAER STRESS IS UNIFORM
ACROSS THE BEAM
SHEAR STRESS DITRIBUTION IN
RECTANGULAR BEAMS
• ASSUMPTION: SHEAR STRESSES ARE
DISTRIBUTED UNIFORMLY ACROSS THE WIDTH &
STRESS DISTRIBUTION IS A CASE OF PLANE
STRESS
• CONSIDER A CASE SHEAR FORCE DOES NOT VARY
WITH x, SHEAR STRESS ALSO WILL BE
INDEPNDENT OF x, AND SECOND OF ABOVE
EQUATION IS AUTOMATICALLY SATISFIED INCE
NORMAL STRESS σy =0

∂τ xy
∂  M b y  Vy
− =  −  =
∂y ∂x  I zz  I zz
• INTEGRATE FROM y=y1 TO y=h/2

h/2
V y 
[ ]
2
− τ xy
h/2
=  
y1
I zz  2  y
1

V h  2

τ xy =   − y 2
1 
2 I zz  2  
• Shear stress is maximum at neutral
surface and falls off parabolically
STRESS ANALYSIS IN BENDING; COMBINED
STRESSES

## • SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT BOTH ARE

PRESENT
• EXAMPLE 7.5
• INVESTIGATE THE STATE OF STRESS AT POINTS B
& C IN THE TOP FLANGE AND WEB OF THE I BEAM
WHEN SHEAR FORCE V AND BENDING MOMENT Mb
ARE BEING TRANSMITTED.
• FIGURE 7.21
EXAMPLE 7.6
• AN ELASTIC CIRCULAR SHAFT IS SHOWN IN
FIGURE TRANSMITTING BENDING MOMENT MB,
AXIAL TENSILE FORCE P, & TWISTING MOMENT MT.
FIND THE STATE OF COMBINED STRESS.
STRAIN ENERGY DUE TO BENDING

## • LONGITUDINAL STRESS GIVEN BY EQ (16), SO

TOTAL STRAIN ENERGY IS GIVEN BY,

2
1 σx
U = ∫∫∫σ x ε x dxdydz = ∫∫∫ dxdydz
2 2E
M B2
U =∫ 2
dx ∫∫ y 2
dydz
L 2 EI zz A

M B2
U =∫ dx
L 2 EI
ZZ
BEAM SUBJECTED TO TRANSVERSE SHEAR
& BENDING

σ2 2
τ +τ2

## U = ∫∫∫ dxdydx + ∫∫∫

x xy xz
dxdydz
2E 2G
ONSET OF YIELDING IN BENDING

• σ1 = σx , σ2 = σ3 =0

## • Criteriaon for yielding in pure bending is

σx =Y
• For combined stresses, Mises criterion or
maximum shear stres criterion may be
used.
EXAMPLE 7.7
• A CIRCULAR ROD OF RADIUS r IS BENT INTO U
SHAPE TO FORM THE STRUCTURE. THE MATERIAL
IN THE ROD HAS A YIELD STRESS Y IN SIMPLE
TENSION. DETERMINE THE LOAD P THAT WILL
CAUSE YIELDING TO BEGIN AT SOME POINT IN THE
STRUCTURE.