Cyborg | Cyborg | Electroencephalography

 WHAT IS A CYBORG?

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CYBERNETICS BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE IMPLEMENTATION OF INVASIVE METHODS PROJECT CYBORG 1.0 PROJECT CYBORG 2.0 NON-INVASIVE EEG SIGNAL METHOD APPLICATION OF CYBORG TECHNOLOGY ADVANTAGES NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES CONCLUSION

•A cyborg is a cybernetic organism. •The term is defined as an organism that is a self-regulating integration of artificial & natural systems & intelligence. •It generally refers to a human who has certain physiological processes aided or controlled by mechanical or electronic devices. •The term was coined in 1960 when Manfred Clynes & Nathan Kline used it in an article about the advantages of self-regulating human-machine systems in outer space.

Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of complex systems especially communication processes,control mechanisms and feedback principles. It is closely related to control theory and system theory .

• In 1843,Edgar Allan described a man with prostheses

in the story ‘The Man That Was Used Up’. • Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic & machine parts in his novel ‘The Comet Doom’in 1928 & the talking, living brain of an old scientist,Simon Wright floating around in a transparent case,in adventures of ‘Captain Future.’ • The TV series The Six Million Dollar Man , the Star Wars Terminator series of movies & Star Trek.

• • • •

Steve Mann "the world's first cyborg", for his early work with wireless wearable web cams in 1970. Michael Chorost an American cyborg born with severe loss of hearing due to rubella, which was partially restored with a cochlear implant in 2001. Claudia Mitchell the first woman outfitted with bionic arm to replace arm she lost in an accident. Matthew Nagle the first person using a BCI to restore functionality lost due to paralysis. Jesse Sullivan known for operating a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, making him one of the first non-fictional cyborgs.

KEVIN WARWICK

•A Professor of Cybernetics at the University of Reading, England, where he carries out research in artificial intelligence, control, robotics and biomedical engineering . •Experiments of Project 1.0 , Project 2.0 carried on him.

REASONS FOR EXPERIMENTING

It has been a part of human nature. Human has limited memory . To overcome serial transmission Thought communication not speech.

BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
• BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) under a grant . •Pathway between brain and external device. • Cortical plasticity of the brain

TYPES OF BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE

INVASIVE BCI - Implanted into the brain or head of the individual that it is designed for. An example of an invasive BCI would be a vision BCI. PARTIALLY INVASIVE-These partiallyinvasive devices are injected into the some part of the nervous system to collect data while most of the machine rests outside of the head. NON INVASIVE- Non-invasive indicates that the device does not need to penetrate the skin at all.

INVASIVE BCI PROJECT CYBORG 1.0
On Monday 24th August 1998, at 4:00pm, Professor Kevin Warwick underwent an operation to surgically implant a RFID silicon chip transponder in his forearm. Dr. George Boulous carried out the operation at Tilehurst Surger .

AIM OF PROJECT 1.0
•Implant communicated via radio waves with a network of antennas •Aim of this experiment was to determine whether information could be transmitted to and from an implant

RESULTS OF PROJECT 1.O
● The door of his laboratory opened as he approached. ● The computer was aware of exactly what time he arrived in certain rooms and left. ● The corridor light came on automatically. ● A voice box in the entrance foyer of the cybernetics building welcomed his arrival each morning with ‘Hello Professor Warwick’ .

PROJECT CYBORG 2.0
On the 14th of March 2002 a one hundred electrode array was surgically implanted into the median nerve fibres of the left arm of Professor Kevin Warwick. The operation was carried out at Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, by a medical team headed by the neurosurgeons Amjad Shad and Peter teddy.

• A first incision was made centrally over the median nerve at the wrist and this extended to 4 cm proximally •A second incision was made 16 c proximal to the wrist, this incision itself extending proximally for 2 cm. •By means of a tunnelling procedure, the two incisions were connected, ultimately by means of a run of open tubing.

With the array in position, acting as a neural interface, it was possible to transmit neural signals directly from the peripheral nervous system to a computer, either by means of a hardwire connection to the terminal pad or through a radio transmitter attached to the pad.

SIMPILIFIED INTERFACE MODULE BLOCK DIAGRAM

ARTICULATED HAND

In this experiment, processed signal data from the neural implant was used with the onboard intelligence of the SNAVE hand to control the hand- grasp function. This was achieved in a manner more closely associated with the operation of a human hand.

TELE-CONTROL
On May 20, 2002, with the subject in a laboratory at Columbia University, New York, NY a link was established between the implanted device in New York and the SNAVE hand at Reading University. The processed signals from the neural implant were transmitted across the Internet to control the articulated hand at its remote location, and stimulation feedback information was sent back via the Internet to the implant

WHEELCHAIR CONTROL
To control an electric wheelchair, a sequentialstate machine was implemented, with a command signal decoded in real time from the neural signals being used to halt the cycle at the intended action. In this way, the over all control of the wheelchair was made to be as simple as possible.

RESULTS OF CYBORG 2.0

NON INVASIVE EEG BCI

EEG SIGNALS- EEG stands for electroencephalography. It is the neurophysiologic measurement, via the use of electrodes on the scalp, of the electrical activity of the brain. EOG SIGNALS- Electrooculography is technique for measuring the resting potential of the retina. In order to properly collect this information, electrodes must be carefully placed either above the eyes or to the left and right of the eyes

EEG SIGNALS

SIMPLE BLOCK DIAGRAM OF EEG BASED BCI

ACQUISITION NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SIGNALS

EVOKED POTENTIALS (ALSO KNOWN AS EVENT RELATED POTENTIALS)

P3 evoked potential

.

OPERANT CONDITIONING.

EEG PREPROCESSING
Eye blink artifact corrupted EEG waveform Artifact – free EEG waveform

SIGNAL PREPROCESSING
Artifacts rejection techniques:
 

Rejection method Subtraction method

Electrooculogram electrode placement

EEG SIGNAL CLASSIFICATION

Delta- Frequency up to 4Hz.primarily associated with deep sleep .

Theta- Frequency from 4 to 7Hz . Generated from emotional stress and frustration.

Alpha-Frequency from 8 to 13 Hz. Indicates
relaxed awareness and inattention.

Beta- Frequency up to 35Hz. Reflects the
mechanism of consciousness.

HARDWARE OVERVIEW
    

ELECTRODES ESD AMPLIFIER FILTERS POWER REGULATION

SOFTWARE OVERVIEW
DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR  ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER  SOFTWARE INTERFACE Like ( simulink v2.07a and g.2Moblab)

BENEFITS OF USING NONINVASIVE METHOD
1.This method is more safe to be implemented . 2. Signal processing and detection is easier. 3.Provides flexibility

CYBORG PROLIFERATION IN SOCIETY
IN MEDICAL: Two different types of cyborgs : Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.  Enhanced cyborg follows principle of optimal performance ie maximising output and minimising input .

IN MEDICAL
Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells.

IN THE MILITARY
The "cyborg soldier" often refers to a soldier whose weapon and survival systems are integrated into the self, creating a human-machine interface. Military organizations' research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for inter-species relationships for the purposes of a supposed a tactical advantage.

DARPA has announced its interest in developing "cyborg insects" to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect's motion would be controlled from a MEMS, or and would conceivably surveil an environment and detect explosives or gas.

Researchers at the University of California, Berkely have set out to "create an exoskeleton that combines a human control system with robotic muscle.“ The device is distinctly Cyborgian in that it is selfpowered, and requires no conscious manipulation by
The Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton (BLEEX) helps lighten the load for the human user.

the pilot soldier.

ADVANTAGES
Giving artificial sight to blind people.  Would be implemented in almost all fields where human interaction is needed.  Diseases could be analyzed and cured in terms of the neural impulse signals.  To establish intercommunication between two or more peoples without using speech.

NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES
The human race will divide along the lines of biological haves and have-nots.  Could easily become a new sort of dominant caste, forcing the rest of untechnologized humanity into serfdom.  A tremendous violation of human privacy .

NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES
Once implanted with bio-implant electronic devices, 'cyborgs' might become highly dependent on the creators of these devices for their repair, recharge, and maintenance, thus placing them under the absolute control of the designers of the technology.  This technology originate from people who foresee tremendous possible risks toward human health.

CONCLUSION
The use of such technology will upgrade humans, turning them into cyborgs, presents a much more difficult problem. Who gets an implant and who doesn’t? Who controls their use? Indeed should humans be allowed to upgrade their capabilities and become ‘super humans’? Humans now have the potential to control another aspect of their own destiny. It will be interesting to see how quickly and easily this will be brought about.

PRESENTED BY MAYURI SAVLA PRATEEKSHA PARIHAR GRACE VARGHESE PRIYANKA TIWARI SHILPA JAIN

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