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Nonspecific URIs

Leading cause of primary care visits

Group of disorders ( no prominent localizing features )

acute infective rhinitis Acute rhinopharyngitis/nasopharyngitis acute coryza common cold flu

• Insidensi dan transmisi • Penyebab tertinggi hilangnya waktu bekerja dan sekolah • Diagnosis dengan pemberian resep antibiotik tertinggi Resistensi antibiotik • • • High incidence and transmission rates. Leading causes of time lost from work or school. Leading diagnoses which antibiotics are prescribed. .

most common cause # Rhinoviruses $thers % influen&a "irus' parainfluen&a' corona"irus' adeno"irus' Respiratory syncytial "irus (R)*+' entero"iruses' rubella "irus' and "aricella.!tiologi early all nonspecific !RIs are caused by "iruses. .&oster "irus+.

Pharyngeal symptoms % sore throat' odynophagia' dysphagia' uncomfortable feeling of a lump when swallowing. -linical features reflect the underlying "iral pathogen myalgias and fatigue $ influen&a and parainfluen&a infections -onjuncti"itis $ adeno"irus or entero"irus ."rincipal signs # symptoms of nonspecific URI rhinorrhea (%ith or %ithout purulence) nasal congestion cough sore throat $ther manifestations % fe"er' malaise' snee&ing' and hoarseness' with fe"er more common among infants and young children.

anda dan gejala dari nonspesifik !RI mirip dengan !RI lain' tetapi tidak terlokalisasi pada / daerah anatomis' seperti sinus' faring' atau saluran nafas • onspesifik !RI biasanya dideskribsikan sebagai acute. rata waktu / minggu • .anda dan gejala berbeda pada setiap pasien . mild. dengan rata. and self-limited catarrhal syndrome.&anda dan Ge'ala • .

• Hasil pemeriksaan fisik biasanya tidak spesifik • 0.1 and 23 dari colds terjadi infeksi bakterial sekunder (contoh% rhinosinusitis' otitis media' pneumonia+ terutama pada populasi risiko tinggi seperti bayi' lanjut usia' dan pasien dengan penyakit kronis • Infeksi bakterial sekunder biasanya berhubungan dengan pemanjangan waktu sakit' sakit yang semakin parah serta tanda dan gejala yang terlokalisasi .

Howe"er' these secretions are also seen in nonspecific !RI and' in the absence of other clinical features' are poor predictors of bacterial infection. .he presence of purulent secretions from the nares or throat $ indication of sinusitis or pharyngitis..

1001/jama.291(13):1587-1595. doi: 10.291.13.Modified Centor Score and Culture Management Approach (JAMA. 2004.1587) .

Circulation 2009: Gerber et al. (2009) . 119 (11): 1541.

based' with use of decongestants and nonsteroidal anti. $ther therapies directed at specific symptoms are often useful' including % de5tromethorphan for cough' lo&enges with topical anesthetic for sore throat . In the absence of clinical e"idence of bacterial infection' treatment $ symptom.inflammatory drugs.(ana'emen 4ntibiotics ha"e no role in the treatment of uncomplicated nonspecific !RI.

119 (11): 1541.Circulation 2009: Gerber et al. (2009) .