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Chapter 4


The Socialization Process   Humans learn the expectations of society through socialization. Socialization is different based on race. gender and class. .

4. 2. .Consequences of Socialization 1. Makes people bearers of culture. Creates the capacity for role taking. Creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways. Establishes self-concepts. 3.

Agents of Socialization       Institutions pass on expectations about appropriate social behavior: Family Media Peers Religion Sports .

. Some families emphasize educational achievement. whereas others emphasize strict obedience and discipline.The Family    Families introduce children to the expectations of society. some may be more permissive. How parents define and treat a child is crucial to the development of the child’s sense of self.

although half of all youth use a computer daily. often using multiple media forms simultaneously. .000 simulated murders on television.The Media    The average young person (age 8–19) spends 6 3/4 hours per day immersed in media in various forms. the average child will have witnessed at least 18. Analysts estimate that by age 18. Television is the dominant medium.

Through interaction with peers.Peers   For children. peer culture is an important source of identity. gain social skills. and form values and attitudes.  Boys’ peer groups tend to be more hierarchical. children learn concepts of self. .  Girls’ peer groups tend to be closely knit and egalitarian. with evident status distinctions between members.

Religious socialization also influences beliefs about sexuality. especially if they have strong ties to their family of origin and after they form families of their own. Very often those who disavow religion return to their original faith at some point in their life. including the likelihood of tolerance for gay and lesbian sexuality.Religion    Children tend to develop the same religious beliefs as their parents. .

Sports    Through sports. Men learn that being competitive in sports is considered a part of “manhood.” Current research finds that women in sports develop a strong sense of bodily competence. which is typically denied to them by the prevailing cultural images of women’s bodies. men and women learn concepts of self. .

Research finds that teachers respond differently to boys than to girls. with boys receiving more of their attention. . teachers and other students are the source of expectations that encourage children to think and behave in particular ways. The hidden curriculum consists of the informal and often subtle messages about social roles conveyed through classroom interaction and materials.Schools    In school.