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Overview

of
DBMS

Dr. Gatot H. Pramono

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Objectives
To understand the following concepts:
1.Database
2.Three levels of database views
3.ER diagram
4.SQL
5.DBMS

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Database
A database is a collection of interrelated
data stored within a computer
environment.
Two characteristics are:
Large data volume
Persistent

Examples: info of students, travel


reservations and banking.

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Database
A database can be viewed in 3 levels:
1.Conceptual modeling
2.Logical modeling
3.Physical modeling

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Conceptual Level
It permits us to model the application of
the world which is independent of any
particular data (logical) model
It provides a framework for developing a
database schema from the top to the
bottom in the process of a database
design
Presentations:
1.Entity-relationship (ER) model
2.Object-oriented model
3.Unified modeling technique (UMT)
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Entity-relationship
The main components are:
– Entity: a thing that exists and is
distinguishable.
– Attribute: describes properties of
entities and relationships.
– Relationship: a connection between
entities.
– Key: differentiates one entity instance
from all others in the entity.

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Entity-relationship
Mapping cardinality: indicates the number of
instances in entity E1 that can or must be
associated with instances in entity E2:
1.One to one relationship
2.Many to one relationship
3.Many to many relationship

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ER Diagram

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UML Diagram

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Logical Level
 Database schema is defined to describe
the structure & constraint of information
managed by the application in a Data
Definition Language (DDL).
 Query language is used to insert,
update, delete and query the data in a
Data Manipulation Language (DML).
This level is described as a set of
relatively simple structures.

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SQL
 SQL (Standard Query Language) is the
widely accepted language used in all
relational database.
Characteristics:
1.Declarative: express what
expected, without knowing how it is
processed
2.Based on mathematics: relational
calculus and algebra
But it lacks of iteration.

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Logical Level

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Physical Level
 Storage: efficient organization of data
 Access Methods: accelerate data
retrieval by defining data structures or
index.
 Query Processing: to answer a query
 Query Optimization: to evaluate of query
processing
 Concurrency and recovery: to manage
concurrent access to data and resources

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Physical Level
Examples:

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DBMS
A DBMS (Database Management System) is a
collection of software that manages the
database structure and controls access.
It performs the data:
Definition: types, structures & constraints
Construction: storage
Manipulation
Query
Update

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Evolution of Datasets

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Towards Free DBMS
There is a trend that big commercial
database vendors release the free license
of DBMS (with some limitations) such as:
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express Edition
Oracle 10g

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Free DBMS

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