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Introduction

to
Spatial DBMS
Dr. Gatot H. Pramono
gatot@bakosurtanal.go.id

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro 1


Objectives
To understand the following concepts:
1.The relation between GIS &
SDBMS
2.Components of SDBMS
3.3 layer architecture
4.Theme algebra
5.Pros & Cons of relational DB
6.Loosely coupled SDBMS
7.Integrated SDBMS
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Spatial Queries
 Army Field Commander: Has there been any
significant enemy troop movement?
 Insurance Risk Manager: Which homes are most
likely to be affected in the next great flood?
 Medical Doctor: Based on this patient's MRI,
have we treated somebody with a similar
condition?
 Molecular Biologist: Is the topology of the amino
acid biosynthesis gene in the genome found in
any other sequence feature map in the database
?
 Astronomer: Find all blue galaxies within 2
arcmin of quasars.
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GIS
Principle technology motivating interest
in SDBMS
The client for SDBMS
GIS uses SDBMS to store, search, query,
share large spatial data sets
Characterized by a rich set of
geographic analysis functions

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GIS – Analysis
 Search Thematic search, search region, (re-)
classification
 Location analysis Buffer, corridor, overlay
 Terrain analysis Slope/aspect, catchment,
drainage network
 Flow analysis Connectivity, shortest path
 Distribution Change detection, proximity, nearest
neighbor
 Spatial analysis/Statistics Pattern, centrality,
autocorrelation, indices of similarity, topology
 Measurements Distance, perimeter, shape,
adjacency, direction
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GIS – Analysis
Measuring
the volume
of hot mud
flow in
Porong,
East Java

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Background
Large amount of spatial data:
EOS (NASA) satellites: 1 terabyte/day
High resolution data used in
GoogleEarth
Census data
Weather and climate data
Rivers, farms, ecological impact
Medical imaging

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DBMS Environment

Data
independence

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DBMS  SDBMS
Traditional (non-spatial) database management
systems provide:
Persistence across failures
Allows concurrent access to data
Scalability to search on very large datasets
Efficient for non-spatial, not for spatial
queries
Non spatial queries:
List 5 biggest hospitals in a city

Spatial queries:
List all hospitals near to the racing circuit
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SDBMS - Definition
An SDBMS is a software module that
can work with an underlying DBMS
can handle large amount of spatial
data
works with an underlying DBMS
provides spatial ADTs callable from a
query language
provides methods for efficient
processing of spatial queries

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro 10


3 Layer Architecture

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SDBMS - Components
1. spatial data model, data types
and operators,
2. spatial query language,
processing and optimization
3. spatial data mining

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SDBMS - Example
Consider a spatial dataset:
Road network (red line)
IDP camps (blue points)
Relocations (light green
points)
Landsat TM image
(background)

Storage in an SDBMS table:


create table idp_camp (
district string,
people number,
foods string,
camp point );

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro 13


GIS - Theme
 Theme is the geospatial information
corresponding to a particular topic.
It is similar to a relation (relational model)
It has a schema and instances
It is displayed with specific symbol, color
and size
Examples: rivers, cities, countries

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GIS – Geographic Objects
 Geographic objects are major objects to
be considered at a conceptual level
A theme is a collection of geographic
objects
Two components of geographic objects
are:
1.Attributes: describe the object
2.Spatial component: consists of geometry
(location & shape) and topology ( spatial
relationships with other objects.

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Theme Algebra
Theme projection

SAWAH
BES AR
27 27
KEMA YO RA N
73 73

GAMBIR
33 CEMPAKA 33

JOHAR P UTIH
SENEN 26
41 BARU 26 41 36
36

MENTENG
20 20
TANAH
ABANG
36 36

Number of SDN for each Number of SDN for each


District in Jakarta Pusat District in Jakarta Pusat

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro 16


Theme Algebra
Theme selection

SAWAH SAWAH
BES AR BES AR
27 27
KEMA YO RA N
73

GAMBIR
33 CEMPAKA CEMPAKA
JOHAR P UTIH P UTIH
SENEN
41 BARU 26 26
36

MENTENG MENTENG
20 20
TANAH
ABANG
36

Number of SDN for each Number of SDN for each


District in Jakarta Pusat District in Jakarta Pusat

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Theme Algebra
Theme union
SAWAH
BES AR
27

CEMPAKA
P UTIH
26

MENTENG
20

SAWAH
BES AR
27
KEMA YO RA N
Number of SDN for each 73
District in Jakarta Pusat
GAMBIR
33
CEMPAKA
SENEN JOHAR P UTIH
BARU 26
41
36

MENT ENG
20
TANAH
ABANG
36

KEMA YO RA N
73
Number of SDN for each
GAMBIR District in Jakarta Pusat
33

SENEN JOHAR
41 BARU
36

TANAH
ABANG
36

Number of SDN for each


District in Jakarta Pusat

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Theme Algebra
Theme overlay
SAWAH
BES AR
27
KEMA YO RA N
73

GAMBIR
33 CEMPAKA
JOHAR P UTIH
SENEN
41 BARU 26
36

MENTENG
20 SAWAH
TANAH
BES AR
ABANG
27
36
KEMA YO RA N
73 (6)

GAMBIR
Number of SDN for each 33 (3) CEMPAKA
District in Jakarta Pusat SENEN JOHAR P UTIH
41 (7) BARU 26
36

MENT ENG
20
TANAH
ABANG
36

KEMA YO RA N
Number of SDN for each
6 District in Jakarta Pusat
GAMBIR
3

SENEN
7

Number of damaged SDN for


each District in Jakarta Pusat

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Theme Algebra
Windowing

SAWAH SAWAH
BES AR BES AR
27 27
KEMA YO RA N KEMA YO RA N
73 73

GAMBIR GAMBIR
33 CEMPAKA 33

JOHAR P UTIH
SENEN
41 BARU 26
36

MENTENG
20
TANAH
ABANG
36

Number of SDN for each Number of SDN for each


District in Jakarta Pusat District in Jakarta Pusat

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Theme Algebra
Merging

SAWAH
BES AR SAWAH
27 BES AR
KEMA YO RA N
73 KEMA YO RA N

GAMBIR
33 CEMPAKA GAMBIR

JOHAR P UTIH CEMPAKA


SENEN
41 BARU 26 JOHAR P UTIH
36 BARU

MENTENG MENTENG - SENEN


20
TANAH
ABANG TANAH
36 ABANG

Number of SDN for each Number of SDN for each


District in Jakarta Pusat District in Jakarta Pusat

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Other Theme Ops
Metric operations
Topological operations
Interpolation/extrapolation
Location
Allocation
Location/allocation

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Relational SDBMS
Storage in an SDBMS table:
create table census_blocks (
name string,
area float,
population number,
boundary polyline );

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Relational SDBMS
Advantage: based on SQL
Drawbacks:
Violates the data independence principle
Requires many tables and relations
Lack of user friendliness for tables of
points
Difficult to define new spatial types
Difficult to express geometrical
computations: topology, point & window
query

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Loosely Coupled SDBMS
Descriptive and spatial Application programs
data managements are
Relational Geometric
separated DBMS processing

Used by many vendors


Drawbacks:
1.Difficult to model, use or DB Files

integrate
2.A partial loss of basic
DBMS functionalities

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Integrated SDBMS
Relational DBMS is extended:
 SQL is extended to manipulate spatial
data. Point, line, polygon are handled as
alphanumeric base
 Many DBMS functions like query
optimization are adapted to handle
geospatial data efficiently

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