Introduction to Spatial DBMS

Dr. Gatot H. Pramono
gatot@bakosurtanal.go.id

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Objectives
To understand the following concepts: 1.The relation between GIS & SDBMS 2.Components of SDBMS 3.3 layer architecture 4.Theme algebra 5.Pros & Cons of relational DB 6.Loosely coupled SDBMS 7.Integrated SDBMS
ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro 2

Spatial Queries
 

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

Army Field Commander: Has there been any significant enemy troop movement? Insurance Risk Manager: Which homes are most likely to be affected in the next great flood? Medical Doctor: Based on this patient's MRI, have we treated somebody with a similar condition? Molecular Biologist: Is the topology of the amino acid biosynthesis gene in the genome found in any other sequence feature map in the database ? Astronomer: Find all blue galaxies within 2 arcmin of quasars.
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GIS
Principle technology motivating interest in SDBMS The client for SDBMS GIS uses SDBMS to store, search, query, share large spatial data sets Characterized by a rich set of geographic analysis functions

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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GIS – Analysis
      

Search Thematic search, search region, (re-)
classification

Location analysis Buffer, corridor, overlay Terrain analysis Slope/aspect, catchment,
drainage network

Flow analysis Connectivity, shortest path Distribution Change detection, proximity, nearest
neighbor

Spatial analysis/Statistics Pattern, centrality,
autocorrelation, indices of similarity, topology adjacency, direction

Measurements Distance, perimeter, shape,
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ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

GIS – Analysis
Measuring the volume of hot mud flow in Porong, East Java

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Background
Large amount of spatial data: EOS (NASA) satellites: 1 terabyte/day High resolution data used in GoogleEarth Census data Weather and climate data Rivers, farms, ecological impact Medical imaging

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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DBMS Environment
Data independence

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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DBMS  SDBMS
Traditional (non-spatial) database management systems provide: Persistence across failures Allows concurrent access to data Scalability to search on very large datasets Efficient for non-spatial, not for spatial queries Non spatial queries: List 5 biggest hospitals in a city Spatial queries: List all hospitals near to the racing circuit
ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro 9

SDBMS - Definition
An SDBMS is a software module that can work with an underlying DBMS can handle large amount of spatial data works with an underlying DBMS provides spatial ADTs callable from a query language provides methods for efficient processing of spatial queries
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3 Layer Architecture

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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SDBMS - Components
1.

2.

3.

spatial data model, data types and operators, spatial query language, processing and optimization spatial data mining

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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SDBMS - Example
Consider a spatial dataset: Road network (red line) IDP camps (blue points) Relocations (light green points) Landsat TM image (background) Storage in an SDBMS table:
create table idp_camp ( district string, people number, foods string, camp point );

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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GIS - Theme

Theme is the geospatial information corresponding to a particular topic. It is similar to a relation (relational model) It has a schema and instances It is displayed with specific symbol, color and size Examples: rivers, cities, countries

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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GIS – Geographic Objects

Geographic objects are major objects to be considered at a conceptual level A theme is a collection of geographic objects Two components of geographic objects are:
1.Attributes: describe the object 2.Spatial component: consists of geometry (location & shape) and topology ( spatial relationships with other objects.

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Theme Algebra
Theme projection

SAWAH BES AR 27 KEMA YO RA N 73 GAMBIR 33 SENEN 41 MENTENG 20 36 33

27 73

CEMPAKA P UTIH JOHAR 26 BARU 36

41

26 36

20

TANAH ABANG 36

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Theme Algebra
Theme selection

SAWAH BES AR 27 KEMA YO RA N 73 GAMBIR 33 SENEN 41 MENTENG 20 JOHAR BARU 36

SAWAH BES AR 27

CEMPAKA P UTIH 26

CEMPAKA P UTIH 26

TANAH ABANG 36

MENTENG 20

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Theme union
SAWAH BES AR 27

Theme Algebra
CEMPAKA P UTIH 26

MENTENG 20

SAWAH BES AR 27

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

KEMA YO RA N 73 GAMBIR 33 SENEN 41 MENT ENG 20 JOHAR BARU 36

CEMPAKA P UTIH 26

TANAH ABANG 36 KEMA YO RA N 73 GAMBIR 33 SENEN 41 JOHAR BARU 36

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

TANAH ABANG 36

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Theme overlay
SAWAH BES AR 27 KEMA YO RA N 73 GAMBIR 33 SENEN 41 MENTENG 20 JOHAR BARU 36

Theme Algebra
CEMPAKA P UTIH 26

TANAH ABANG 36

SAWAH BES AR 27 KEMA YO RA N 73 (6)

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

GAMBIR 33 (3) SENEN 41 (7) MENT ENG 20 JOHAR BARU 36

CEMPAKA P UTIH 26

TANAH ABANG 36

KEMA YO RA N 6 GAMBIR 3 SENEN 7

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

Number of damaged SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Theme Algebra
Windowing

SAWAH BES AR 27 KEMA YO RA N 73 GAMBIR 33 SENEN 41 MENTENG 20 GAMBIR 33

SAWAH BES AR 27 KEMA YO RA N 73

CEMPAKA P UTIH JOHAR 26 BARU 36

TANAH ABANG 36

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Theme Algebra
Merging

SAWAH BES AR 27 KEMA YO RA N 73 GAMBIR 33 SENEN 41 MENTENG 20 TANAH ABANG GAMBIR

SAWAH BES AR KEMA YO RA N

CEMPAKA P UTIH JOHAR 26 BARU 36

JOHAR BARU MENTENG - SENEN

CEMPAKA P UTIH

TANAH ABANG 36

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

Number of SDN for each District in Jakarta Pusat

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Other Theme Ops
Metric operations Topological operations Interpolation/extrapolation Location Allocation Location/allocation

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Relational SDBMS
Storage in an SDBMS table:
create table census_blocks ( name string, area float, population number, boundary polyline );

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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Relational SDBMS
Advantage: based on SQL Drawbacks: Violates the data independence principle Requires many tables and relations Lack of user friendliness for tables of points Difficult to define new spatial types Difficult to express geometrical computations: topology, point & window query
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Loosely Coupled SDBMS
Descriptive and spatial data managements are separated Used by many vendors Drawbacks:
1.Difficult to model, use or integrate 2.A partial loss of basic DBMS functionalities
Application programs Relational DBMS Geometric processing

DB

Files

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Integrated SDBMS
Relational DBMS is extended:  SQL is extended to manipulate spatial data. Point, line, polygon are handled as alphanumeric base  Many DBMS functions like query optimization are adapted to handle geospatial data efficiently

ITM 625 – [02] SDBMS Intro

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