Representation of Spatial Objects

Dr. Gatot H. Pramono

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


To understand the following concepts: Modeling of geographic space: entity- and field-based models Modes of representation: tessellation, vector, half-plane Geometry representation: spaghetti, network, topology

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj



The space of interest is Rd (Euclidean distance) in which the dimension d is 2. Objects are referred to x (abscissa) and y (ordinate) axises. Map projection is ignored. Limited only in the particular area of interest.

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Geog Space Modeling
It can be classified as: Entity-based models (object- or feature-based models) Field-based models (space-based models)

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Entity-Based Model
It views the world consisting of objects, entities or features. A geographic object is composed of:
Identity Spatial object Common description

Interpretation depends on the description Types of spatial objects:
Points (0-D): when shape is not useful or small object Polyline (1-D): representing networks Polygon (2-D): showing the coverage or area
ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj 5

Polyline is a finite set of line segments or edges such that each vertex is shared by 2 segments, except for 2 endpoints (extreme points). Types: Closed: 2 extreme points are identical Simple: no intersection Monotone: projected on a line at one point
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Surfacic objects are used for representing entities with large areas surrounded by polyline (boundary) Types: Simple: bounded by simple polyline Convex Monotone: simple polygon which can be split into 2 monotone polylines To be noted: Choice is based on scale It can be approximated by high order polynomial, but it needs more storage capacity.
ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj 7

A convex polygon has: Interrior with convex set Internal angles < 180º Every point is visible from other points

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Field-Based Model
Each point in space is associated with a value. A continuous model. Similar to raster representation. Example: precipitation, temperature and polution.

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Representation Modes
These are practical implementations of geometric information. Difficulty: infinite point sets of the euclidean space. The represantation modes are:
Tessellation: discrete Vector: data structure Half-plane : data structure

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Represented as grid (cells) Known as discrete model, spatial resolution model, tiling or meshes High resolution results in high memory space Analysis is usually converted to vector Can be divided as: Fixed (regular) mode: raster; remote sensing images Variable (irregular) mode: zoning for social, demographic or economic data

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Regular tessellation


ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Irregular tessellation: cadastral zones & Thiessen polygons

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Vector Mode
Objects are constructed from points and edges Not much storage space is required Complex data structure Representation: Point: x & y coordinates Polyline: list of vertex Polygon: list of vertex with closed polyline Region: a set of polygons
ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj 14

Vector Mode
Polyline: simple, non-simple, not the one

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Vector Mode
Field-based data: TIN (triangulated irregular network) which consists of: Point: elevation Edge: slope Triangle: aspect

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Half-Plane Mode
A line segment is a convex polytope of dimension 1, defined by intersection of two half-lines A polyline is a polyhedron of dimension 1, obtained by union of some line segments A convex polygon with n edges is defined as the intersection of n half-planes defined by lines A nonconvex polygon is constructed from several convex polygons

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Half-Plane Mode
Convex & nonconvex polygons

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Geometry Representation
Focuses on entity-based models and vector-based representation About representation of collections of spatial objects About relationships among objects of the same collection Representations: Spaghetti Network Topological

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Spaghetti Model
The geometry of any spatial objects is described independently of other objects Advantages: simplicity & easy data input Weaknesses: Topology is not stored Redundancy: boundary of 2 regions is represented twice Mixing of point, line and polygon Intersection is not recognized

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Network Model
Topology among points and polylines is stored It contains nodes and arcs Initially used for network applications: transportation services & utility management Types: Planar: edge intersection is defined as node Nonplanar: edges may cross but not intersect

ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj


Topological Model
Similar to planar network model Arcs as polylines and boundary of 2 polygons Redundancy but good for access: polygons are accessible from polygons and arcs Advantage: topology, update consistency Problems: Some spatial objects have no meaning in the real world Complex structure may slow down computation
ITM 625 – [03] Rep Spatial Obj 22

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