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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Pawan Chaturvedi GET (Mechanical)


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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Introduction
There are three reciprocating and two screw compressor which fulfills the demand of plant and instrument air in the plant. Normally one reciprocating and one screw compressor runs at a time. Each type of compressor is equipped with separate dryer unit.

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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Compressor Details
Model Type L.P. Cylinder Bore H.P. Cylinder Bore Stroke Length Speed Free Air Delivery Working pressure V-Belts Kirloskar T-BTD-RH Balanced Opposed Double Acting 470 mm 265 mm 150 mm 500 rpm 20 m3/min 10 kg/cm2g spc 4500 Qty-7 5785 Kg 487 lpm

Total weight Cooling Water Qty (comp+intercooler+aftercooler)

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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Contd
Compression ratio 1st stage Compression ratio 2nd stage Clearance ratio L.P. cylinder Clearance ratio H.P. cylinder Valve lift Bearing Type Motor output Motor speed Total BHP of compressor(full load) 3.37 3.41 6.8% 7.5% 1.65 mm Journal bearing 150 kw 1500 rpm 127.8 kw

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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Basic Cycle
Air compressor can be represented by P-V diagram. It is a primary tool for determining the reciprocating compressor performance. It describes the relationship of the internal pressures and volumes of a particular end of the compressor cylinder during the compression cycle. It is also known as Indicator diagram.
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DISCHARGE VALVE CLOSES

DISCHARGE VALVE OPENS

3
PRESSURE

DISCHARGE VOLUME

RE-EXPANSION

COMPRESSION

SUCTION VALVE OPENS

SUCTION INTAKE VOLUME

SUCTION VALVE CLOSES

STROKE OR VOLUME
MINIMUM CYLINDER VOLUME MAXIMUM CYLINDER VOLUME

HEAD END OUTBOARD DEAD CENTER

CRANK END INBOARD DEAD CENTER

Petronet LNG Ltd.

Actual Cycle

Discharge pressure

P
LOSS DUE TO DISCHARGE VALVE

LOSS DUE TO SUCTION VALVE

Suction pressure

V
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Reason for variation


When the clearance air is reduced to atmospheric pressure inlet valve will not open because there must be some pressure difference to suck the air thus the pressure drops away until the valve force off its seat and some valve bounce occur. Hence suction will become below the atmospheric pressure. Because of gas inertia and turbulence.
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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Actual P-V diagram for double acting compressor

Valve Losses

Pressure

Valve Losses

Volume

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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Why Multistage compression


8

2 3

1
4 7

V
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Advantages
Volumetric efficiency increases. Better mechanical balance. Power required for running the machine is less. Low pressure cylinder may be lighter in construction.

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Effect of Intercooler
5 6 P 3

Energy Saved
Without intercooling Perfect intercooling 4 7 2 isothermal adiabatic

8 V
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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Effect of Clearance
Clearance=cylinder clearance + valve clearance
Volumetric efficiency= eff. Swept volume swept volume

So when clearance increases, effective swept volume decreases and efficiency decreases , but power consumed by the compressor is not depend on the clearance.

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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Lube Oil Properties


Lube Oil Capacity (crankcase)
Text

Servo System-68 43 ltr 64-72 CSt.@40C


Text Text

Kinematic viscosity
Text

Concept Viscosity index, min Flash point (COC),min Pour point, max

95
210 C (-) 6 C

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Process & instrumentation Diagram

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Discharge Valve

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Suction Valve With Unloader

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Functioning of Valve
Suction valve- When there is pressure

difference

across

the

valve

and

this

pressure difference become more than the spring force then valve plate lifts and air comes inside the cylinder.

Discharge

valve-

When

pressure

difference is more than the spring force

valve lifts and air goes outside of the


cylinder.

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Valve Testing

Test Bench

valve Air Supply

Rotameter
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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Capacity Control
For capacity control two pressure switches and two solenoid valve is used. Solenoid valve is three way and normally open type. Pressure switches are set at definite pressure which can be adjusted. When pressure in the receiver rises, pressure switches operates and SOV de-energizes and inner suction valves unloaded, compressor runs at 50% load. When there is further rise in pressure, its associated pressure switch operates and de-energizes SOV and all suction valve unloaded, compressor runs at no load.
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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Belt Tightening
Whole set of belt should be replaced at a time. Belt should not be under or overtensioned. Tensioning is done using tensometer. Belt deflection(mm)=16(centre to centre distance in m)

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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Safety of the Compressor


There is trip when cooling water flow is low. High pressure alarm at aftercooler inlet. High temp. alarm and trip at aftercooler inlet.

Low pressure alarm and trip for lube oil.


High pressure alarm for first stage discharge. High temp. alarm and trip for first stage discharge. Low pressure trip for first stage suction. Pressure safety valve in intercooler and aftercooler.
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Petronet LNG Ltd.

Thank You
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