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# Himangshu Ranjan Ghosh

Energy is produced in the core through nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium
Temperature of the core is around 16106 K Temperature of Photosphere is around 6000K
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The sun revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit with the sun at one foci. The amount of solar radiation reaching the earth is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the sun. The mean sun-earth distance r0 is called 1AU The minimum sun-earth distance is about 0.983AU The maximum sun-earth distance is about 1.017AU The sun-earth distance r for any day of any year can be found with maximum error of 0.0001
1Astronomical Unit (AU)=1.496108km

According to Spencer

(r0/r)2=1.000110+0.034221cos+0.001280 sin +0.000719cos2 +0.000077sin2 (r0/r)2 is called eccentricity correction factor E0 is called the day angle, in radians =2(dn-1)/365 is the day number of the year, ranging from 1 on 1 January to 365 on 31 December

## According to Duffie and Beckman, a simple expression is E0=1+0.033cos[(2dn/365)]

Ref J W Spencer, Fourier series representation o the position of the Sun. Search 2(5), 172,1971 J A Duffie and W A Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Wiley New York, 1980

## Calculate the sun-earth distance on 8 January

The angle between a line joining the centres of the sun and the earth to the equatorial plane changes every day, in fact every instant. This angle is called the solar declination In 24h maximum change is 0.5degree

According to Spencer
=(0.006918-0.399912cos+0.070257sin-0.006758cos2+0.000907sin20.002697cos3+0.00148sin3)(180/2) The equation estimates the declination with maximum error of 0.0006rad Two other simple and commonly used formulas are (in degrees)

## Calculate the solar declination on 8 January

Solar time is based on the rotation of the earth about its polar axis and on its revolution around the sun The solar day varies in length through the year. The two principal factors for this variance are

The earth sweeps out unequal areas on the ecliptic plane as it revolves around the sun The earths axis is tilted with respect to the ecliptic plane

If an observer facing the equator today sets a clock at 12 noon, when the sun is directly over the local meridian; then after a month or so on at 12 noon, clock time, the sun may not appear exactly over the local meridian A discrepancy of as much as 16minutes is possible. This discrepancy is called the equation of time
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According to Spencer

## In minutes. The maximum error is about 35sec

Ref http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equation_of_time 10

Solar radiation data are often recorded in terms of local apparent time (LAT), also called true solar time (TST) Solar meteorological data such as temperature and wind speed are often recorded in terms of clock time/local standard time/daylight saving time

Local apparent time=local mean time + equation of time =local standard time + longitude correction + equation of time =local standard time+4(Ls-Lc)+Et

The longitude correction is positive if the local meridian is east of the standard and is negative if west of the standard meridian

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Determine the solar time (LAT) on 8 Jan at Jessore (23 deg E, 89deg N) when the standard time is 10:00.

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