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Chapter 3 Overview

Several

variations to die casting The variations depend on several factors:


Temperature of the metal pump Consistency of the metal when it is injected Metal velocity Gating configuration Condition of die cavity at moment of injection
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Chapter 3 Objectives
Identify the

two major methods of injecting metal into the die List advantages of hot chamber die casting Explain why cold chamber die casting is used Explain how vacuum die casting can reduce defects List two emerging die casting technologies
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New Terms
Billet

A small metal bar


Static metal

pressure

The metal pressure in the die cavity at the instant that the cavity is full
Thixotropy

The property of a fluid mixture to become more fluid as the mixture is agitated
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Two Major Processes


Hot

chamber and cold chamber die casting Get name from temperature of metal pump relative to temperature of the metal
In hot chamber, the metal pump is submerged in the metal and is same temperature as the metal In cold chamber, the metal pump is outside the furnace and is cold relative to the metal ladled into it
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Hot Chamber Components

A Frame
Suspends shot components above and in the furnace; mounted to stationary platen

Shot cylinder
Actuates vertically; metal is injected with downward stroke of the shot cylinder

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Hot Chamber Components

Coupling
Connects shot cylinder to plunger rod and tip

Plunger rod and tip


Pumps the metal; piston tip has 2 or 3 grooves in it for piston rings
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Hot Chamber Components

Rings
Prevents metal from bypassing tip; helps maintain metal pressure after die cavity is filled

Gooseneck
Combination sleeve and metal path out of the metal pump
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Hot Chamber Components

Nozzle
Tube connecting gooseneck to die cast die; extends from gooseneck, through stationary platen, to die cast die; its heated to keep the metal liquid in the nozzle

Sprue bushing
What the nozzle seats against; cooled to assure the metal in it freezes
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Hot Chamber Machine Cycle

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Hot Chamber Process Uses


For low melting point alloys and alloys with a

small aluminum constituent These alloys include those made from:


Lead Tin The Zamak family of zinc alloys, ZA8 zinc alloy and a small amount of AZ91D magnesium alloy
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Cold Chamber Components

C-frame
Structural framework that supports the shot components; mounted to stationary platen

Shot cylinder
Mounted to the C-Frame; injects metal with its horizontal stroke
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Cold Chamber Components

Coupling
Connects the shot cylinder to the plunger rod and tip

Cold chamber
Shot sleeve or tube that the plunger slides in to pump the metal

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Cold Chamber Components

Plunger rod and tip


Pumps the metal; made from highly conductive material and is water-cooled Conventional cold chamber plunger tips do not have rings; newest technology indicates that the tip may benefit from a design with rings
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Cold Chamber Machine Cycle

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Cold Chamber Process Uses


Used

for high melting point alloys and alloys with a significant aluminum constituent:
Aluminum Copper Magnesium Iron Titanium Composite materials
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Hot Chamber Advantages


Metal

temperature control is better maintained Metal transfer not required Cooling of piston tip and sleeve not required Fewer oxidation losses

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Process Limitations/Variations
Conventional process limited by

internal

porosity
Due to trapped gases or solidification shrinkage
New technologies developed to

provide

denser castings
Use vacuum, squeeze casting, or semi-solid and thixotropic melting/casting methods
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Vacuum Process
Die

cavity evacuated using a vacuum pump Several commercially available systems Limitations to how complete a vacuum can be achieved; 26-27 inches of mercury seems adequate for most applications

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Squeeze Casting
Gate

velocity is much lower Gate thickness is much higher Metal pressures at the end of cavity filling are much higher

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Semi-Solid Casting
Alloy cast

is part liquid and part solid

Premise: defects form during solidification; solids therefore should be free of defects
Billet of material is

preheated to casting temp. in a specially constructed induction heater Billet placed in cold chamber, then injected Uses low gate velocities and high metal pressures to make very dense castings
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Thixotropic Casting

Takes advantage of the thixotropy of alloy


When injected and forced through the gate, literally sheared and agitated, it flows like a plastic material

Injection system is a combination of the screw used in plastic injection and the plunger used in conventional die casting

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Summary
Two major processes

Components are similar Process used is based on alloys melting point Hot chamber process has several advantages
Process variations are

based on new

technologies
Try to overcome conventional die castings limitation of internal porosity
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