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water hardness pH PO43-

NO2-, NO3NH4+ Fe

WATER HARDNESS
Water hardness is caused by divalent ions, especially Ca2+ and

Mg2+. The measure for water hardness is 1d (=10mg CaO/L water). Classification:
0 4 d

. very soft water 4 8 d . soft water 8 12 d . medium soft water 12 18 d . pretty hard water 18 30 d . hard water over 30 d . very hard water

Our results
SAMPLE Water hardness

School tap water


Rahtel tap water Vuhred tap water otanj tap water Spring Velenje Spring otanj Velenje lake River Homnica

11
3 7 10 9 6 18 4

pH
pH is criteria of acidness and baseness of water.
pH = -log [H30+] [H30+] > 10-7 => pH < 7 (acid) [H30+] = 10-7 => pH = 7 (neutral) [H30+] < 10-7 => pH > 7 (base)

Our results
SAMPLE School tap water Rahtel tap water Vuhred tap water otanj tap water Spring Velenje pH 8 6,5 7 8 7,5

Spring otanj
Velenje lake

7,5
8

River Homnica
natural water has pH between 6 and 8 drinking water => pH = 6,5 8,5 (EC rules)

7,5

3PO4
Natural unpolluted water contains less than 0,1 mg/L of

all the PO4 (higher concentrations are caused by human pollution). Sources of pollution:
phosphoric manures
washing and detergents phosphating (transformation of metal surfaces into

phosphates as a protection from rusting)

Our results
SAMPLE School tap water Rahtel tap water Vuhred tap water otanj tap water Spring Velenje Spring otanj Velenje lake River Homnica drinking water => PO43- = 0,6 mg/L (EC rules) PO430,3 0,5 0 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,1 0,5

NO2 ,

NO3

Nitrates (NO3-) are the major polluters of ground water

and also of many fluent and influent waters. Sources of pollution:


artificial manures intensive stockbreeding poor infrastructure (sewage)

The functioning key of nitrates is transformation into

nitrites (NO2-).

Our results
SAMPLE School tap water Rahtel tap water Vuhred tap water otanj tap water Spring Velenje Spring otanj Velenje lake River Homnica NO310 0 10 10 10 10 10 10 NO20,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,1

drinking water => NO3- = 25 mg/L (EC rules) drinking water => NO2- = max. 0,1 mg/L (EC rules)

NH4

The presence of ammonium in water shows that the

water was in contact with rotting organic materials, fecals..

Our results
SAMPLE School tap water Rahtel tap water Vuhred tap water otanj tap water Spring Velenje NH4+ 0,05 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,05

Spring otanj
Velenje lake

0,05
0,2

River Homnica
drinking water => NH4+ = 0,05 mg/L (EC rules)

0,2

Fe
Iron is often presented in water.
It represents over 5% of Earth bark and by water

absorbing it, iron comes in the water. It causes a lot of troubles


rusted stains on clothes (washed in washing machine) iron coating on pipes

Our results
SAMPLE School tap water Rahtel tap water Vuhred tap water Fe 0,3 0,6 0,2

otanj tap water


Spring Velenje Spring otanj Velenje lake River Homnica drinking water => Fe = max. 2 mg/L

0,4
0,1 0,1 0,3 0,4

WATER IN SLOVENIA
To conclude: all pH values of drinking water are according to EC rules all PO43- values meet EC rules NO2- and NO3

ground water that contains over 25 mg NO3- /L water of Drava field water of Ptuj field water of Spodnja Savinjska valley water of Prekmurje field

Only both sources and school tap pipe water are according

to NH4+ value all Fe values meet EC rules