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Laser Communication

Presented by, P.Anitha(08MCS204)

Introduction

Laser communications systems are wireless connections through the atmosphere. Use Laser Beams to transmit information between two locations No fibres need, a wireless technology Communication over long distances, e.g. between planets Laser Communication Terminals (LCTs) transmit a laser beam and are capable of receiving laser beams

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How does it Work

Signal

Transmitter

Laser

Receiver

Signal

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Laser Transmitter and Receiver

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A one-way Laser communication system.

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Laser Transmitter

The transmitter involves:

Signal processing electronics(analog/digital) Laser modulator Laser( Visible, near visible wavelengths)

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Modulation

AM

Easy with gas lasers,hard with diodes

PWM PFM

Potentially the highest bandwidth(>100kHz)

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Receiver

The receiver involves:

Telescope(antenna) Signal processor Detector

PIN diodes Avalanche Photo Diodes(APD) Single or multiple detectors

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Gain Systems

Transmitter

Maximum output power Minimum divergence Maximum lens area Clarity Tight focus on detector

Receiver

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Laser Diode

Laser Diodes include Photodiodes for feedback to insure consistent output

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Filters

Sun shade over detector Shade in front of lens Detector spectral response Colored filters

Absorb ~50% of available light Difficult to find exact frequency

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Mounting Systems

Mounts and stands need only be as accurate as beam divergence Good laser diodes will be 1-2mR (milliRadian) A 32 pitch screw at the end of a 2' mount will yield 1mR per revolution. Since quarter turns (even eighth turns) are possible, this is more than accurate enough Higher thread pitches allow shorter mounts which may be more stable (against wind, vibration, wires) 1mR is 1.5 of divergence every 1000, 2000 etc.

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Security Aspects

Free space laser communications systems have narrow optical beam paths, which are not accessible unless viewing directly into the transmitter path. Any potential eavesdropping will result in an inter-ruption of the data transmission. The existence of laser beams cannot be detected with spectrum ana-lyzers.

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Safety Aspects

The free space laser communications systems do not require certification for handling or operation. Although the emitted laser beam is invisible to the unaided eye, it can cause eye damage if viewed directly at close range for extended periods of time

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Laser Communication System

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Laser Communication System

Input: Digital data Direct or indirect modulation Source output passes through the optical system into the channel Optical system: transfer, beam shaping, telescope optics Receiver beam comes through optical system and passed to detectors and signal processing electronics

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System Characteristics

Link parameters:

Type of laser, wavelength, type of link Semiconductor laser diodes, solid state lasers, fiber amplifier lasers. Lasers operate in single or multiple longitudinal modes. Single longitudinal mode

laser emits radiation at a single frequency


multiple frequencies are emitted
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Multiple longitudinal mode

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Link parameters

Semiconductor laser diodes

Reliable operations as direct sources Operating in 800-900 nm range High efficiency of about 50% Small size Output power

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Link parameters

Solid state lasers

Higher power levels, high peak power mode Operating at 1064 nm Increase in complexity and reliability

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Link parameters

Types of link:

Acquiston

Acquiston time,false alarm rate,probability of detection

Tracking

Amount of error induced in the signal circuitry


Bit error rates

Communications

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Transmitter Parameters

Laser characteristics, losses incurred in the transmit optical path, transmit antennae gain, transmit pointing losses. Laser characteristics

peak and average optical power pulse rate pulse width

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Channel Parameters

Consists of

Range, associated loss background spectral radiance spectral irradiance

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Receiver Parameters

The receiver parameters are the

Receiver antenna gain

proportional to the square of effective receiver diameter in meters and inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength.

Receive optical path loss

optical transmission loss for systems employing the direct detection techniques.

Optical filter bandwidth

the spectral width of the narrow band pass filter employed in optical inter satellite links

Receiver field of view


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Advantages of Laser Communication Technology

Higher data rates


Compared to RF technology LC provides much higher data rates Higher data rates are essential as more and more data is moved between diff. locations Key Driver for investments in Laser Communication Technology
A focused laser beam is hard to intercept without notice Path to Quantum Cryptography

High security regarding interception


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Advantages of Laser Communication Technology

Less frequency restrictions

RF spectrum is crowed and heavily used


Less weight and power per bit

Smaller aperture dimensions and thus reduced size and mass

Autonomous alignment agility resulting in less platform manoeuvres

Less fuel or more flexibility

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Applications for Laser Communication


Data Relay Services for UAVs UAV transmits its data to a GEO Stationary Satellite Data Relay Services for Satellites

LEO Satellite transmit their data to a GEO Satellite Data Exchange between GEO/LEO Satellites Scientific data is transmitted down to Earth, e.g. Mars -> EarthGEO

Inter-Satellite Links

Deep Space Data Transmissions

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Situation

Situation

Demand for more information requires more and higher resolution sensors/cameras on UAVs Data transmission becomes the limiting factor to acquire and distribute information from UAV to Operation Center at diff. location RF solution reach data rate limits

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Problem, Need

Problem Limited information is available to Operation Centers Information not available when needed as transmission time is a bottle neck Real-time decision making not possible or only limited possible Need Solution for higher data rate transmissions from UAV to Operation Center of long distances (span continents)

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Conclusions

With the dramatic increase in the data handling requirements for satellite communication services, laser inter satellite links offer an attractive alternative to RF with virtually unlimited potential and an unregulated spectrum. The system and component technology necessary for successful inter satellite link exists today.

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References

www.mindstein.net Laser communication.pdf www.bestneo.com Lasercommunicationsystem.pdf server4.oersted.dtu.dk/courses/31825/Project11.pdf www.freepatentsonline.com/4717828.html www.qsl.net/k7kw/DEMOS/LaserCommunications.ppt www.mseconference.org/.../mse03_2P_Uherek_Microop toelectronicscurricula.pdf opticalcomm.jpl.nasa.gov/PAPERS/ATP/gospi03b.pdf

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