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# Control Engineering

## State Variable Equations

Computer-aided analysis and design of state variable models are done more easily on computers for high-order systems (differential equations of high orders.) More information (internal variables) are involved hence better control when needed. Design procedures that give the best control system are often based on state variable models. State variable models are required for digital simulation.

## State Variable Equations

High order D.Eq. => T.F. => Signal Flow Graph (Simulation diagram) => State Variable Eqs.

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State Variable Models

This equation gives the position of y(t) as a function of force f(t). Suppose we also want information about the velocity.

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Where X(t) = state vector = (n by 1) vector of the states of an n-th order system. X(t) is the time derivative of the vector X(t) A = (n by n) system matrix B = (n by r) input matrix u(t) = input vector = (r by 1) vector of the system input functions Y(t) = output vector = (p by 1) vector of the defined outputs C = (p by n) output matrix D = (p by r) matrix representing direct coupling between input and output.

State Diagram

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Simulation diagram:

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Signal flow graph from the above graph:

More Example

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## Solutions of state equations:

An example:

Y ( s) 1 G( s) 2 U ( s) s 3s 2

Note 1: The same transfer function can give different signal flow graphs (see the signal flow graph here and the one 3 slides back.) Note 2: Different signal flow graphs may give different differential equations (compare the d.eqs. below with the d.eqs. 3 slides back.)

Note 3: Although with different signal flow graphs and different d.eqs. the final outcome (y(t)) is the same (compare the above here with the x1 (t )solution for y(t)= solution for y(t) given before, assuming all initial conditions are zero.)

More Examples:

P 1 G1G2 G3G4 L1 G2G3 H 2 L2 G3G4 H 1 L3 G1G2G3G4 H 3 1 G2G3 H 2 G3G4 H 1 G1G2G3G4 H 3 M 1 G1G2G3G4 1 1 G1G2G3G4 G ( s)

Another Example:

## Numerical Solutions of the State Equations

State equation: x(t) = Ax(t) + Bu(t) Let h = integration increment (or time-step) x(kh) = x[(k-1)h] + hx[(k-1)h] (1) x[(k-1)h] = Ax[(k-1)h] + Bu [(k-1)h] (2) Algorithm: 1. k = 1 2. Evaluate x[(k-1)h] as in (2) 3. Evaluate x(kh) as in (1) 4. k = k+1 5. Go to step 2.