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# Feedback Control Systems Engineering

## Lesson 08: Closed-Loop Control System Part 2

FEEDCON
29 June 2007

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Objectives
After this lesson, the students will learn how to build closed-loop block systems (done) be able to simply and reduce closed-loop block systems using block system manipulation theorems (done) analyze systems with multiple inputs (principle of superposition), analyze real-world closed-loop systems, familiarize with controllers for closed-loop systems (PI, PID)

References
R. S. Burns (2001), Advanced Control Engineering , USA: ButterworthHeinemann

Review!

Review!

Review!

## Block Diagram Manipulation

Review!

Principle of Superposition
The response y(t) of a linear system due to several inputs x1(t), x2(t), , xn(t), acting simultaneously is equal to the sum of the responses of each input acting alone.

Example

????

## Find the complete output for the system shown below.

Solution
First, the block diagram is simplified

## We need to work on simplified block diagrams!

Solution
Simplified block

Solution
Apply Principle of Superposition: put R2(s) = 0 and replace the summing point by +1 results to
What is the transfer function?
CI(s) --------------R1(s)

## CI(s) is the response to R1(s) acting alone!

Solution
The transfer function is therefore (with R1(s) acting alone)

or

Solution
Next, put R1(s) = 0 and the summing point is replaced with -1, then the response CII(s) to input R2(s) acting alone is done by
Set to zero

Change to: -1

Solution
The resulting diagram is shown below

First, we combine the three blocks that form a cascade, next we simplify the positive feedback loop.

Solution
The resulting transfer function is

or

Solution
Using the Principle of Superposition, we add CI(s) and CII(s)

or

## Problem Solving Approach

First, simplify the block diagrams using the block diagram reduction theorems. Second, apply principle of superposition if the system has multiple inputs.
Solve for the transfer function of the resulting diagram!

Examples
Transfer functions of system elements:
DC Servo Motors Linear Hydraulic Actuators

DC Servo Motor

DC Servo Motor
The armature-controlled operation of the DC Servo Motor is shown in the block diagram

DC Servo Motor
The behavior of the inputs with respect to the circuit is given by the equation

DC Servo Motor

or

DC Servo Motor

DC Servo Motor
From the model

DC Servo Motor

## Controllers for Closed Loop Systems

The generalized closed-loop system

The control action u(t) will be such that the controlled output c(t) will be equal to the reference input r1(t) for all values of time, irrespective of the value of the disturbance input r2(t).

Proportional Control
The control action, or signal, is proportional to the error e(t)

## where K1 is the proportional gain constant

Proportional Controller
For first order plants,

Proportional Control
The transfer function of the plant is given by

## which can be combined with the proportional control law

Proportional Control
Re-arranging the equation yields

Proportional Control
When r1(t) is a unit step, and r2(t) is set to zero, the final value theorem yields

When r2(t) is a unit step, and r1(t) is set to zero, the final value theorem yields

## Proportional Control Plus Integral (PI)

Consider the control law

## Taking its Laplace transform yields

Ti
The time interval in which the part of the control signal due to integral action increases by an amount equal to the part of the control signal due to proportional action when the error is unchanging.

PI Control
The output of the system is

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