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MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: Physical and cognitive development

Physical Development

Growth and Body Changes

Motor Development
More

Skill in controlling Body Physical Growth Slows Temporarily

Brain Development
Dyslexia:

Disorder in which an otherwise normally intelligent, healthy child or adult has extreme difficulty learning to read Genius and Giftedness: Pull-out programs, in-class enrichment, advancing a grade

Health and Fitness Issues


Obesity:

BMI greater than the 85th percentile for age and gender Eating Disorders Role of Play and Exercise

Cognitive Development

Cognitive Sophistication
Piagets

Period of Concrete Operations

Integration of the powerful, abstract, internal schemas such as identity, reversibility, classification and serial ordering
Conservation

Tasks

Require recognition that the quantity of something stays the same despite changes in appearance

Horizontal Decalage
Sequential

development, with each skill dependent on the acquisition of earlier skills Post-Piagetian Criticism Cross-Cultural Evidence:
Cultural and social factors play a role in childrens cognitive development

Information Processing
Individual

Differences Childrens Perceptions of Others


Under 8: Children describe people in terms of external attributes; global descriptive terms. Over 8: More specific, precise. Inner qualities are noticed.

Language Development
Vocabulary
Syntax

and Pragmatics: Grammar and sentence structure Bilingual Education in the United States Educating Children Whose Reading and Speaking Skills Are Below Standard

Limited English Proficiency


Students

whose native language is not English and who cannot participate effectively in the regular school curriculum because of difficulty speaking, understanding, reading and writing English. 3.2 million LEP students nationwide.

Education
Reading

and speaking skills are below

standard English as a Second Language (ESL) Teaching English as Foreign Language

Bilingual Education
Bilingualism:

Provides instruction in both languages by teachers proficient in both. Total Immersion


Children placed in regular classrooms and English is used for all instruction

Assessment of Intelligence
Intelligence:

Ability of individuals to understand and express complex ideas, adapt effectively to their environment, learn from experience, and solve problems.

Types of Intelligence Tests


Verbal

intelligence, inductive reasoning, spatial ability The EQ Factor: Emotional Intelligence Limitations of IQ Tests
Some abilities cannot be measured.
Individual

Cognitive Styles:

Differences in how individuals organize and process information.

The EQ Factor
Emotional

Intelligence Mind-Blindness Temporary Insanity Self-Regulatory Behaviors

Learning Disabilities (LDs)


Umbrella

concept to refer to children, adolescents, and college students who encounter difficulty with school-related material despite the fact they appear to have normal intelligence and lack demonstrable physical, emotional, or social impairment.

ADHD
Collection

of vague and global symptoms. Causes are unknown

Individual Education Plans (IEPs):


Legal

document that ensures that the child with special learning needs will receive the needed educational support services in the least restrictive environment.

Inclusion
The

integration of students with special needs within the regular classroom programs of the school, in some cases with an additional aide in the classroom

What Do We Know About Effective Schools


Teachers

care about lesson plans High achievement is expected High proportion of time spent on instruction and learning

Effective Schools
Homework

is important Students encouraged to use library Schools foster respect for students and high expectations for behavior

Moral Development
The

process by which children adopt principles that lead them to evaluate given behaviors as right and others as wrong and to govern their own actions in terms of these principles.

Cognitive Learning Theory


Bandura

et.al. Moral development is a cumulative process that builds on itself gradually and continuously, without any abrupt changes.

Cognitive Developmental Theory


Piaget,

Kohlberg Moral development takes place in stages, with clear-cut changes between them. Piaget: two-stage theory of moral development
Heteronomous morality Autonomous morality

Lawrence Kohlberg
Heinzs

ethical dilemma: 3 levels of development


1. Preconventional 2. Conventional 3. Postconventional

Carol Gilligan
Men

and women have different conceptions of morality


Men: justice Women: care

Correlates of Moral Conduct


Intelligence
Age

(-)

(-) Sex (-) Group Norms (+) Motivational Factors (-)

Prosocial Behaviors
Ways

of responding to other people through sympathetic, cooperative, helpful, rescuing, comforting and giving acts. Empathy: Feelings of emotional arousal that lead an individual to take another perspective and to experience an event as the other person experiences it.