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Chapter 9

Learning the Three Ps of Oral Presentations: Preparation, Practice, and Presentation


Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

Understand why so many people fear oral presentations. State the 3 Ps of oral presentation. List and explain the three general purposes of presentations.

Relate how you analyze your audience.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

Discuss how to organize your presentation. Distinguish between the different patterns for forming the main ideas.

Explain the different kinds of supporting material.


Identify how you construct the introduction and conclusion.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

Outline a basic presentation. Describe how to develop visual aids. Spell out how to use a pointer. Express how to use up nervous energy.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

Report actions to use during the introduction and the body of the presentation. List the guidelines for making team presentations. Recount how to handle the question and answer session. Explain when to use a multimedia presentation.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Three Ps of Oral Presentations


Preparation Practice

Presentation

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Uses of Oral Presentation Skills

Informal Reports

In-House Proposals
Sales Proposals Recommendations Informal Briefings

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Determining the General Purpose


Informing Persuading

Entertaining

Your Purpose

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Persuading

Being an Effective Speaker Depends on: Providing facts and logical evidence

Being credible

Understanding the psychological needs of your listener

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Analyzing the Audience


To tailor your message, you must know your audience.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Organizing the Presentation

Examine your topic.

Develop a thesis.
List your main points. Gather supporting material. Prepare introduction and conclusion.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Forming the Main Ideas

Topical Pattern

Spatial Pattern
Chronological Pattern Problem-Solution or Cause and Effect

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Fears of Public Speaking

Fear of making embarrassing mistakes . Fear of damaging career or reputation. Fear of forgetting or freezing.. Fear of being dull or boring. Fear of looking nervous or petrified
Source: Edward Wakin, Speaking Frankly about Speech Phobias, Todays Office, 25 (5), p. 50, October 1990.

81% 77% 63% 58% 52%

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Topical Pattern
Arranges main points by type or category.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Spatial Pattern
Arranges main ideas according to physical location and shows the relationships among them.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Chronological Pattern

Progresses from one given point in time to another. Commonly involves explaining steps.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Problem-Solving Pattern
Points out certain forces or causes and then discusses results or solutions.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Supporting Material

Quotations

Explanations Comparisons Illustrations Expert

Analogies
Examples Statistics

Opinions

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

The Introduction
1. Capture attention.

2. Show benefit to listeners.


3. State your qualifications.

4. Preview purpose and main points.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Developing Visual Aids


One Point Five Lines, Up to Seven Words Each Phrases Instead of Sentences Upper- and Lowercase Type Simple Typeface and Appropriate Colors

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Why Use Visual Aids?


Enhance understanding. Add authenticity. Provide variety. Help speech have lasting impact. Can build speaker credibility.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Print Size for Flip Charts


Title3 Inches High Subtitles2 Inches High Other Text1 1/2 Inches High

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Font Size for Transparencies


Title36 Point Subtitles24 Point Other Text18 Point

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Font Size for Slides


Titles44 Point Subtitles40 Point Other Text32 Point

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Font Size for Handouts


Titles18 Point Subtitles14 Point Other Text12 Point

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Colors

Elegant (Expensive-Quality)

Gold, silver, copper black, chocolate, grey, maroon, and navy blue

Masculine

Black, silver, grey, purple, burgundy, brown, and dark green

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Colors

Feminine

Pale blues, pale pinks, yellows, pale greys, and flesh colors

Fresh, Clean, Healthy

Daffodil yellow, bright blue, bright greens

Natural

Browns, oranges, reds, golds

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Colors

Loud

Primary red, orange, green, purple, black, and white

Cool

Blue, green, pale yellow, pale pink, pale purple, and violet Red, orange, gold, deep yellow, and rich browns

Warm

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Retaining Information
After 3 Hours
Heard Only Seen Only Heard and Seen 10% 72% 65% After 3 Days 70% 20% 85%

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Using a Pointer

Face your audience when possible.

Dont play with your pointer.


Point at the screen. Dont leave your pointer on the projector.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

When Presenting

Move but dont sway.

Move around the entire room, but dont pace.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Successful Speakers

Thoroughly prepare. Involve their audience. Creatively use quotes and music. Often use humor. Move around.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Questions and Answers

Anticipate questions and your response.

Know your subject and audience.


Practice your answers.

Repeat the question.


Keep your answer short.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Manage Your Body Language

Move toward the person who asked the question. Repeat the question so the entire audience knows the question. Stay focused on the person who asked with five seconds of eye contact.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Team Presentations

Plan together.

Divide the topics into logical and wellbalanced divisions. Practice together.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Team Presentations

Introduce team members.

Talk to your audience.


Stay within time limits.

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.

Multimedia Presentations

Four Questions to Keep in Mind: Which technology should we include? How will we deliver the message? What technical expertise will be required? How much will we have to pay?

Roebuck: Improving Business Communication, 4th edition. (c) 2006, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved.