Presented by : Sagar Kumar Gupta

Reg.no.00600311 Dept. of EEE cochin university of science and

• What is ZigBee ? • ZigBee Overview • IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN • ZigBee Networking Basics • Technology Comparisons • Applications • Conclusion • References

Next few minutes …….

What is ZigBee ?
• ZigBee is a wireless networking technology. • ZigBee is the set of specifications built around the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol. • ZigBee technology is a low data rate, low power consumption, low cost, wireless networking protocol targeted towards automation and remote control applications. • ZigBee ideal for harsh radio environments in isolated locations.

Need for ZigBee the market's need ZigBee was created to satisfy
of a standards-based wireless network that is
– – – – cost-effective supports low data rates low power consumption secure and reliable

• ZigBee is the only wireless standards-based technology:
– that addresses the unique needs of remote monitoring & control, and sensory network applications. – enables broad-based deployment of wireless networks with low cost, low power solutions. – provides the ability to run for years on inexpensive primary batteries for a typical monitoring application

• The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable, cost-effective, low-power, wirelessly networked, monitoring and control products based on an open global standard ( IEEE 802.15.4 PAN ) • Open and global ► Anyone can join and participate ► Membership is global

ZigBee Alliance

• The name "ZigBee" is derived from the erratic zig zag patterns many bees make between flowers when collecting pollen. This is suggestive of the invisible webs of connections existing in a fully wireless environment, similar to the way packets would move through a mesh network.

Why the name ZigBee ?

• Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) are used to convey information over relatively short distances. • The main features of this standard are network flexibility, low cost, very low power consumption, and low data rate in an adhoc self-organizing network among inexpensive fixed, portable and moving devices

IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN

ZigBee Characteristics  ZigBee operates is one of three license free bands
 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz for North America, and 868 MHz for Europe

 At 2.4 GHZ, there are a total of 16 channels available with a maximum data transfer of 250 kbps  At 915 MHz: 10 channels for a max 40 kbps transfer rate  At 868 MHz: 1 channel for a max 20 kbps transfer rate  ZigBee incorporates a CSMA-CA protocol
 This protocol that reduces the probability of interfering with other users and automatic retransmission of data ensures robustness.  Yields high throughput and low latency for low duty cycle devices like sensors and control.

ZigBee Characteristics  Multiple topologies : star, peer-to-peer, mesh
topologies  Low power consumption with battery life ranging from months to years 128-bit AES encryption – Provides secure connections between devices Addressing space of up to 64 bit IEEE address devices Up to 65,535 nodes on a network Optional guaranteed time slot for applications requiring low latency Fully reliable hand-shake protocol for transfer reliability Range: 10 to 100m. Typical (Up to 400m max.)

DEVICE TYPES
■ There are three different ZigBee device types ■ The ZigBee (PAN) coordinator node ■ The Full Function Device (FFD) ■ The Reduced Function Device (RFD)

ZIGBEE TOPOLOGY
 ZigBee Supports 3 Topologies  Star topology  Peer to Peer topology  Cluster Tree or Mesh Topology

STAR TOPOLOGY

PEER TO PEER TOPOLOGY

CLUSTER TREE TOPOLOGY

ZigBee Architecture
ZigBee Application layer ZigBee Network layer 802.15.4 MAC
802.15.PHY 868 /915MHz
802.15.4 PHY 2.4 Ghz

I E E E

ZigBee ALLIANCE

Network Layer AND Application Layer
 This level in the ZigBee architecture includes  The ZigBee Device Object (ZDO)  User-Defined Application Profile(s)  The Application Support (APS) Sub-layer.

PHY LAYER
The PHY
service enables the transmission and reception of PHY protocol data units (PPDU) across the physical radio channel. The features of the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY physical layer are  Activation and deactivation of the radio transceiver,  energy detection (ED),  Link quality indication (LQI),  Clear channel assessment (CCA),  Channel selection.

MAC LAYER
The MAC
service enables the transmission and reception of MAC protocol data units (MPDU) across the PHY data service.  The features of MAC sub layer are  Beacon Management,  CSMA-CA Mechanism,  GTS management,  Acknowledged frame delivery,

DATA TRANSFER
• Information in a ZigBee network is transferred in packets • Each packet has a maximum size of 128 bytes, allowing for a maximum payload of 104 bytes. • The ZigBee specification supports a maximum data transfer rate of 250 kbps for a range of up to 100 meters • A ZigBee network has an optimal super frame structure with a method for time synchronization • For priority messages, a guaranteed time slot mechanism has been incorporated . This allows high priority messages to be sent across the network as rapidly as possible.

DATA TRANSFER

BEACON MODE

NON-BEACON MODE

DATA TRANSFER

BEACON MODE

NON-BEACON MODE

ZIGBEE MESH NETWORKING

TECHNOLOGY COMPARISIONS

CONCLUSION
• Comparing ZigBee technology with the present Bluetooth technology it is evident that ZigBee can have a safe future in this effervescent world of technology. • There is definitely a place on the market for ZigBee, since no global standard exists today in the wireless sensor network area.

REFERENCES
• Understanding ZigBee , July 2009. • ZigBee “ wireless sensors and control networks” presented at Wireless Congress 2008. • ZigBee “ the green wireless solution” published by Bob Heile, Chairman, ZigBee alliance - December 1, 2008. • ZigBee Technical Overview , Tokyo Members Meeting Open House, Tokyo, Japan - February 28, 2008.

Websites :• 1. http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/zigbee • 2. http://www.zigbee.org • 3. http://www.wisegeek.com